Abstract

An accurate technique was implemented to measure spectral hole burning in rare-earth amplifiers at room temperature, showing that thulium-doped fiber amplifiers exhibit hole depths four times lower than those of C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
  2. F. Roy, D. Bayart, and P. Baniel, “Novel pumping schemes for the thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WA6.
  3. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, “Novel 1.50‐µm band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier by using a dual wavelength pumping of 1.05 µm and 1.56 µm,” in Digest of optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper PdP1.
  4. B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.
  5. F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.
  6. A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.
  7. T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.
  8. D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.
  9. M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, and C. Lin, “Accurate measurements of EDFA gain spectra,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM2.

1995 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Aizawa, T.

T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.

Baniel, P.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, and P. Baniel, “Novel pumping schemes for the thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WA6.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

Bayart, D.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, and P. Baniel, “Novel pumping schemes for the thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WA6.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

Boniort, J. Y.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

Bousselet, P.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

Dickinson, J. E.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Ellison, A. J. G.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Evankow, J. D.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Fages, C.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

Girard, J. J.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

Gsaca, L.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

Kasamatsu, T.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, “Novel 1.50‐µm band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier by using a dual wavelength pumping of 1.05 µm and 1.56 µm,” in Digest of optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper PdP1.

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Le Sauze, A.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

Lin, C.

M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, and C. Lin, “Accurate measurements of EDFA gain spectra,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM2.

Mills, M. A.

M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, and C. Lin, “Accurate measurements of EDFA gain spectra,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM2.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Minelly, J. D.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Nissov, M.

M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, and C. Lin, “Accurate measurements of EDFA gain spectra,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM2.

Robert, Y.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

Roy, F.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, and P. Baniel, “Novel pumping schemes for the thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WA6.

Sakai, T.

T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.

Samson, B. N.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Sekita, H.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, “Novel 1.50‐µm band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier by using a dual wavelength pumping of 1.05 µm and 1.56 µm,” in Digest of optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper PdP1.

Srivastava, A. K.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Traynor, N. J.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Trentelman, J. P.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Wada, A.

T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.

Walton, D. T.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Yamauchi, R.

T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.

Yano, Y.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, “Novel 1.50‐µm band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier by using a dual wavelength pumping of 1.05 µm and 1.56 µm,” in Digest of optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper PdP1.

Zyskind, J. J.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).

Other (8)

F. Roy, D. Bayart, and P. Baniel, “Novel pumping schemes for the thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WA6.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, “Novel 1.50‐µm band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier by using a dual wavelength pumping of 1.05 µm and 1.56 µm,” in Digest of optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper PdP1.

B. N. Samson, N. J. Traynor, D. T. Walton, A. J. G. Ellison, J. D. Minelly, J. P. Trentelman, and J. E. Dickinson, “Thulium-doped silicate amplifier at 1460–1520 nm,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), postdeadline paper PdP6.

F. Roy, P. Baniel, C. Fages, J. J. Girard, A. Le Sauze, and D. Bayart, “Optical pumping schemes for gain-band management of thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuQ7.

A. K. Srivastava, J. J. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, and M. A. Mills, “Room temperature spectral hole burning in EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

T. Aizawa, T. Sakai, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Effects of the spectral hole burning on multichannel EDFA gain profile,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WG1.

D. Bayart, Y. Robert, P. Bousselet, J. Y. Boniort, and L. Gsaca, “Impact of spectral hole-burning for EDFAs operated in the long-wavelength band,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. Barney, K. Emura, and J. Weisenfeld, eds., Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper WD5.

M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, and C. Lin, “Accurate measurements of EDFA gain spectra,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WM2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the SHB measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Broadband source spectrum provided by the flattened ASE of a TDFA (top) and a saturating channel in addition to this source (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four SHB spectra in TDFA (solid curve) and Gaussian approximations (dashed curve) for different saturating wavelengths (λs=1460, 1465, 1470, 1475 nm) with corresponding gain compression [(GC) top] and detail of a SHB spectrum, showing the SHB depth and the SHB width Δλ due to a 1465-nm saturating channel (bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHB depth in the EDFA for different saturation wavelengths versus gain compression compared with SHB depth measured in TDFA.

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