Abstract

We propose a new cesium (Cs) atomic clock whose microwave source is a 9.1926-GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked erbium fiber laser rather than a quartz oscillator and a multiplexer. The repetition rate of the laser is directly locked to the Cs resonance, and the frequency stability evaluated by the Allan variance is 7.1×10-12 for τ=1 s. This new atomic clock provides not only a precise 1-s time standard after demultiplexing but also an optical pulse train with the same stability, which means that the ultrastable clock signal can be delivered throughout the world by means of optical fiber networks.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, Electron. Lett. 29, 1849 (1993).
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  3. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Bakhshi and P. A. Andrekson, Electron. Lett. 36, 411 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.
  10. E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 548 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1956).
  14. T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.
  15. D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. Bakhshi and P. A. Andrekson, Electron. Lett. 36, 411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, Electron. Lett. 29, 1849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

B. Bakhshi and P. A. Andrekson, Electron. Lett. 36, 411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakhshi, B.

B. Bakhshi and P. A. Andrekson, Electron. Lett. 36, 411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, T. F.

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.

Cleland, D.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.

Ellis, A.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, T.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Ito, H.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manning, R. J.

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, P. J.

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, T.

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, Electron. Lett. 29, 1849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, I. D.

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1956).

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shan, X.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

Spielmann, Ch.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veith, G.

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, Electron. Lett. 29, 1849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (8)

A. D. Ellis, R. J. Manning, I. D. Phillips, and D. Nesset, Electron. Lett. 35, 645 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Bakhshi and P. A. Andrekson, Electron. Lett. 36, 411 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and K. Tamura, Electron. Lett. 33, 1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996), see also Ref.  17.
[CrossRef]

X. Shan, D. Cleland, and A. Ellis, Electron. Lett. 28, 182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeiffer and G. Veith, Electron. Lett. 29, 1849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 31, 292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, E. Yamada, and Y. Kimura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1956).

T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Furuta, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, M. C. Nuss and J. Bowers, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 166.

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, I. N. Duling, and P. J. Matthews, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD24.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

New Cs atomic clock with a 9.1926-GHz regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser: PM-EDF, polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber; PM-DSF, polarization-maintaining dispersion-shifted fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stabilized microwave characteristics of the present Cs optical atomic clock. (a) First-derivative signal of the Ramsey fringe pattern of a Cs resonance, (b) frequency fluctuation with feedback off and on, (c) single-sideband phase noise at 9.1926  GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical output characteristics of the Cs-atom optical clock. (a) Output optical pulse train at 9.1926  GHz, (b) optical pulse waveform measured with an autocorrelator, (c) 9.1926-GHz electrical clock signal, (d) spectral profile (longitudinal modes) of the laser output pulse.

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