Abstract

We have produced single-crystal spheres and spherical disks of photorefractive barium titanate BaTiO3. The spheres and disks allow direct fiber-to-fiber two-beam coupling without additional optical elements. We also investigate the spontaneous oscillation of triangles and other whispering-gallery modes in these spherical structures.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  2. W. T. Baxter, Jewelry Gemcutting and Metalcraft, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950), pp. 229–232.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. See R. B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, New York, 1970), p. 1001, for the original treatment for sound waves.
  5. T. Baer, Opt. Lett. 12, 392 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
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1998 (2)

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

Baer, T.

Baxter, W. T.

W. T. Baxter, Jewelry Gemcutting and Metalcraft, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950), pp. 229–232.

Byer, R. L.

Corbett, B.

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, D.

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Guo, C.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jahoda, F. C.

Klancnik, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, R. B.

See R. B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, New York, 1970), p. 1001, for the original treatment for sound waves.

McInerney, J. G.

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, P.

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. G.

Xin, Y.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Zhang, B.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Yakeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Courtney, P. O’Brien, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. G. McInerney, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE 3286, 138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Y. Lin, B. Zhang, Y. Xin, C. Guo, L. Dai, D. Zhou, and C. Huang, Solid State Commun. 105, 445 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

See R. B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, New York, 1970), p. 1001, for the original treatment for sound waves.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

W. T. Baxter, Jewelry Gemcutting and Metalcraft, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950), pp. 229–232.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

”Beach ball” pattern of a spherical photorefractive crystal placed between crossed polarizers and observed directly along the c axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-beam coupling between two pairs of fibers by use of a spherical photorefractive crystal of BaTiO3. To the left and right of the sphere are pairs of fibers held in grooves and fixed in place by overlying glass covers. Light enters from the pair of fibers on the left and exists in the pair of fibers on the right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscillation patterns inside a BaTiO3 spherical disk: (a) and (b) are frontside and backside triangles, respectively; (c) and (d) are frontside and backside squares; (e) higher-order patterns, (f) spatially broadened triangle arising from a converging pump beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, schematic defining the coordinates of parameter space. Bottom, dotted ellipses qualitatively show the four regions of the parameter space for which triangles are observed (the pump-beam size and divergence are fixed). The horizontal bars show quantitative data regions of triangles. The solid line and curves represent the four theoretical curves of ϕψ that maximize gain.

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