Abstract

We demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) using continuum generation in an air–silica microstructure fiber as a low-coherence light source. A broadband OCT system was developed and imaging was performed with a bandwidth of 370  nm at a 1.3μm center wavelength. Longitudinal resolutions of 2.5 μm in air and 2 μm in tissue were achieved. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging in biological tissuein vivo was demonstrated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. Boppart, and M. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Pulifiato, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1839 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper CPD8.
  8. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1415 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilinsky, I. P.

Birks, T. A.

Boppart, S.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. Boppart, and M. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. Boppart, and M. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Pulifiato, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Pulifiato, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Pulifiato, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pulifiato, C. A.

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper CPD8.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

Stentz, A. J.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper CPD8.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Pulifiato, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper CPD8.

Wise, F. W.

Yanovsky, V. P.

Nature Med. (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 4, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neoplasia (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. Boppart, and M. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), postdeadline paper CPD8.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ultrahigh-resolution OCT system using continuum generation in an air–silica microstructure fiber as the light source. Dual-balanced detection is used to reduce excess noise. The interferometer is dispersion balanced and optically and electronically optimized to support broad optical bandwidths. SHG, second-harmonic generation; FI, Faraday isolator; λ/2, half-wave plate; BL, best-form lens; MO, microscope objective; IF, long-pass interference filter; AL’s, chromatically corrected doubles; FC’s, 3-dB 2×2 fiber couplers; PC’s, polarization controllers; CaF2, calcium fluoride window; FS, fused-silica window; A, air gap. D1, D2, InGaAs photodiodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical spectrum of the light source after spectral filtering and coupling of the continuum in a single-mode fiber, measured at the entrance port of the second fiber coupler. (b) Interference fringes recorded by use of an isolated reflection. The FWHM was measured to be 2.5 μm. (c) Detected optical spectrum and (d) group-delay dispersion mismatch of the interferometer arms obtained from the Fourier transform of the interferometric signal (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo ultrahigh-resolution (6 μm×2.5 μm, transverse×longitudinal resolution, 1 mm×0.9 mm; 1000×2700 pixels) OCT image of a Syrian hamster’s cheek pouch. A blood vessel (V) and a layered structure showing the epithelial layer (E), lamina propria (lp), and muscle layers (M) are clearly visible. A microscope cover glass (C) was placed on top of the cheek pouch.

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