Abstract

Optically pumped organic semiconductor lasers are fabricated by evaporation of a thin film of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum Alq3 molecularly doped with a laser dye on top of a polyester substrate with an embossed grating structure. We achieve low-threshold, longitudinally monomode distributed-feedback laser operation. By varying the film thickness of the organic semiconductor film, we can tune the wavelength of the surface-emitting laser over 44  nm. The low laser threshold allows the use of a very compact all-solid-state pump laser (10 cm long). This concept opens up a way to obtain inexpensive lasers that are tunable over the whole visible range.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Schön, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 5999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.
  12. E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).
  13. V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. R. Hammond, Opt. Commun. 29, 331 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, Göttingen, Germany, 2000).
  18. J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. The second harmonic of a regeneratively amplified femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser is used as the pump laser in these experiments. All spectra are recorded just above the laser threshold. In all cases the laser threshold amounts to a few nanojoules.
  21. K. J. Ebeling, Integrated Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000

J. H. Schön, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 5999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. R. Hammond, Opt. Commun. 29, 331 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Allemand, P. M.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, J.-J.

E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).

Bao, Z.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Batlogg, B.

J. H. Schön, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 5999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, U.

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, Göttingen, Germany, 2000).

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeSilvestri, S.

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. H. Schön, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 5999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

K. J. Ebeling, Integrated Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.

Forrest, S. R.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, P. R.

P. R. Hammond, Opt. Commun. 29, 331 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haugeneder, A.

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.

Heeger, A. J.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hilmer, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kallinger, C.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippelen, B.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kloc, C.

J. H. Schön, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 5999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. Bulovic, V. G. Kozlov, V. B. Khalfin, and S. R. Forrest, Science 279, 553 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 389, 362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lanzani, G.

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.

Logdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marty, J.

E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).

Mash, E. A.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mataloni, P.

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, S. B.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Molva, E.

E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).

Morrell, M. M.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nabor, M. F.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neges, M.

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.-M.

E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).

Perner, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qibing, P.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, and A. Dodabalapur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
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A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
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F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, P. Qibing, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
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S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
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M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, Nature 389, 466 (1997).
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M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2230 (1997).
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A. Schulzgen, C. Spiegelberg, M. M. Morrell, S. B. Mendes, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, M. F. Nabor, E. A. Mash, and P. M. Allemand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 269 (1998).
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A. Haugeneder, M. Neges, C. Kallinger, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, and U. Scherf, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1124 (1999).
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C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
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S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
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R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
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N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
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S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
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S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
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C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
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S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
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S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
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S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
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C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, Adv. Mater. 10, 920 (1998).
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S. Stagira, M. Zavelani-Rossi, M. Nisoli, S. DeSilvestri, G. Lanzani, C. Zenz, P. Mataloni, and G. Leising, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2860 (1998).
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S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000).
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Nature

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Other

The second harmonic of a regeneratively amplified femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser is used as the pump laser in these experiments. All spectra are recorded just above the laser threshold. In all cases the laser threshold amounts to a few nanojoules.

K. J. Ebeling, Integrated Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, A. Haugeneder, C. Kallinger, and J. Feldmann, in Semiconducting Polymers: Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, G. Hadziionannou and P. Van Hutten, eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999), p. 309.

E. Molva, J.-J. Aubert, J. Marty, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Self-aligned, monolithic, solid microlaser with passive switching by a saturable absorber and a production process therefor,” U.S. patent5,495,494 (February27, 1996).

U. Brackmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, Göttingen, Germany, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Broad spectrum, spectral dependence of the gain coefficient measured by femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy. (a)–(f) Laser spectra measured for samples with various film thicknesses of the Alq3:DCM layer. For these measurements a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser is used as the excitation source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inset, scheme of the DFB laser. Films consisting of 98% Alq3 and 2% DCM (by weight) are evaporated on top of a PET substrate. Second-order Bragg diffraction of waveguided light gives rise to the positive feedback necessary for laser operation. First-order Bragg diffraction couples light out into a direction perpendicular to the substrate. The squares in the main part of the figure represent the experimentally determined laser wavelengths for various film thicknesses. The solid curves are calculations based on the assumption of a planar waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inset, scheme of the very compact all-solid-state laser with an organic semiconductor film as the active medium. The pump source is a commercially available diode-pumped, self-pulsating, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG microchip laser (Uniphase Nano UV-355). The organic semiconductor laser can be placed directly in front of the pump laser. Thus the total length of this very compact solid-state dye laser is less than 10  cm. The main part of the figure shows the input–output characteristics at the laser wavelength.

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