Abstract

We report an experimental observation of third-order nonlinear absorption by quantum interference in 87Rb atoms cooled and confined in a magneto-optic trap. A coupling laser creates electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a multilevel Rb system in which the third-order nonlinear absorption is enhanced by constructive quantum interference while the linear absorption is inhibited by destructive interference. Our experiment demonstrates the EIT system proposed by Harris and Yamamoto [Phys.  Rev.  Lett.   81, 3611 (1998)], which absorbs two photons but not one photon in the dressed-state picture.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 257.
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. S. Agarwal and W. Harshawardhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Li and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1064 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Ph. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 1474 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Kitching and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4685 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1064 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Agarwal and W. Harshawardhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal and W. Harshawardhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 257.
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Courty, J. M.

A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. B.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgiades, N. Ph.

Giacobino, E.

A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harshawardhan, W.

G. S. Agarwal and W. Harshawardhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

J. Kitching and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kash, M. M.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Kitching, J.

J. Kitching and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lambrecht, A.

A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Loffler, M.

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmet, L.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikonov, D. E.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmabandu, G. G.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

Pritchard, D. E.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochester, S. M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

Scully, M. O.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I. N.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoicheff, B. P.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Lambrecht, J. M. Courty, and E. Giacobino, Appl. Phys. B 60, 129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 397, 594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Kitching and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and L. V. Hau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, M. Loffler, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal and W. Harshawardhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), p. 257.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Four-level atomic system and laser-coupling scheme. g, Ω, and Ω are half-Rabi frequencies of the labeled transitions. Γ3 2π×5.3 MHz and Γ4 2π×5.9 MHz are the spontaneous decay rates. (b) Dressed-state picture showing two-photon excitation by quantum interference between two excitation paths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. PD, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(e) Measured probe absorption versus probe-frequency detuning Δ while the coupling laser and the pump laser are on resonance, i.e., Δc=Δ=0. The vertical scale shows the percentage probe absorption. The central peak corresponds to the two-photon absorption, and the two side peaks represent the Autler–Townes doublet transitions. For comparison, the measured EIT spectra of the probe absorption versus Δ are plotted in ae. The solid curves represent the experimental data, and the dotted curves are the theoretical calculations.

Equations (1)

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ρ13=-i2gΩ24Γ4Ω2+Γ4ΩΓ4+Γ3+4 Ω2Γ34Γ42Ω4+Ω3Γ42Γ4+Γ3+Ω2Ω2Γ4Γ3+Γ4ΩΩ2Γ3Γ4+Γ3+4 Ω4Γ32.

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