Abstract

A low-coherence reflectometer based on a conventional Michelson interferometer and a novel silicon detector chip with a two-dimensional array of pixels that allows parallel heterodyne detection is presented. We demonstrate acquisition of three-dimensional images with more than 100,000  voxels per scan at a sensitivity of -58 dB and a rate of 6  Hz.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000

1999

1998

1996

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Beaurepaire, E.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourquin, S.

Carr, S.

Chak, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chida, K.

Clivaz, X.

Danielson, B. L.

Davies, D. E. N.

Dresel, T.

Fercher, F.

F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golu-bovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilgen, H. H.

Golu-bovic, B.

Greg-ory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kobayashi, K.

Lebec, M.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquis-Weible, F.

Noda, J.

Novàk, R. P.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Salathé, R. P.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, P.

Sivak, M. V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golu-bovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Greg-ory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Venzke, H.

Whittenberg, C. D.

Wong, R. C. K.

Yokohama, I.

Youngquist, R. C.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: SLD, superluminescent diode; L1, L2, microscope objectives; L3–L5, achromatic lenses; BS, beam splitter; S, sample under test; RM, reference mirror; AS, aperture stop; A/D, analog–digital. A photograph of the sample under test is shown in the top right-hand corner. The investigated area is indicated by a square drawn on the coin. The horizontal line locates the cross section displayed in Fig.  4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the 2D image sensor and detailed view of individual pixels and decoders, located in the bottom left-hand corner. PD, photodiode; EC, electrical circuitry; RD, row decoder; CD, column decoder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transverse slices of a 10-centime coin at different depths: (a) 55 μm, (b) 125 μm, (c) 130 μm, and (d) 135 μm. Each image consists of 58×58 pixels and covers an area of 8.5 mm×8.5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Display of one cross-sectional image of the 10-centime coin. The dashed curve corresponds to the profile measured by use of a commercial optical profilometer. (a)–(d) indicate the depths of the transverse slices shown in Fig.  3.

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