Abstract

The symmetry of an optical waveguide determines its modal degeneracies. A fiber with rotational symmetry of order higher than 2 has modes that either are nondegenerate and support the complete fiber symmetry or are twofold degenerate pairs of lower symmetry. The latter case applies to the fundamental modes of perfect microstructured optical fibers, guaranteeing that such fibers are not birefringent. We explore two numerical methods and demonstrate their agreement with these symmetry constraints.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.
  2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2078 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, and A. Bjaklev, Opt. Lett. 25, 96 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 50 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Steel and J. R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 26, 229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. McIsaac, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Lax, Symmetry Principles in Solid State and Molecular Physics (Wiley, New York, 1974).
  13. T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

2001 (1)

2000 (7)

1999 (1)

1975 (1)

P. R. McIsaac, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, P.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

Bennett, P. J.

Birks, T. A.

Bjaklev, A.

Botten, L. C.

T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

Broderick, N. G. R.

Broeng, J.

Burdge, G. L.

de Sterke, C. M.

T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

Eggleton, B. J.

Ferrando, A.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

Lax, M.

M. Lax, Symmetry Principles in Solid State and Molecular Physics (Wiley, New York, 1974).

Mangan, B. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

McIsaac, P. R.

P. R. McIsaac, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

Miret, J. J.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mogilevtsev, D.

Monro, T. M.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

Osgood, J. R. M.

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

Silvestre, E.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sondergaard, T.

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

Westbrook, P. S.

White, C. A.

White, T. P.

T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

Windeler, R. S.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

P. R. McIsaac, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 421 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, and M. V. Andrés, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2000 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper QFA2.

M. Lax, Symmetry Principles in Solid State and Molecular Physics (Wiley, New York, 1974).

T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Convergence of neff with Ncyl for He11Δ, He21, TE0, and TM0 modes. (b) Splittings with Npw states per polarization: neffHE11x-neffHE11y, neffHE21x-neffHE21y, δnTE0, and δnTM0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Splitting of the HE11 mode for “satellite” fiber with the plane-wave method. The rightmost holes are located at 1,0 μm and 0.575,0.658013 μm, with radii 2.3 μm and 0.5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ez (top row) and Hz (bottom row) for orthogonal HE11 states e1 (column  1) and e2 (column  2). Column  3 is the superposition cos2π/6e1+sin2π/6e2.

Equations (2)

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e1xe2x=dxe1x×h2x*,
einx=β,σein°eβ,σeβ,σx,

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