Abstract

We demonstrate a technique for measuring pulse propagation time delays with 0.5-fs resolution by use of a widely available 100-fs pulsed laser. Using this technique, we measured the time delay of a light pulse transiting through subwavelength apertures placed on a 0.3μm metallic film. We measured a 7-fs total transit time, corresponding to an effective group velocity of c/7. The experimental result yielded additional evidence that light interacts resonantly with oscillators formed by the surface modes near the small apertures.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  6. P. R. Villeneuve, Phys. World 11, 28 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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2000 (1)

1999 (5)

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, T. Thio, T. Ebbesen, D. Grupp, and H. Lezec, Opt. Lett. 24, 256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sambles, Nature 391, 641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Villeneuve, Phys. World 11, 28 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Physik (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

Beck, M.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, T. Thio, T. Ebbesen, D. Grupp, and H. Lezec, Opt. Lett. 24, 256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D.

T. Kim, T. Thio, T. Ebbesen, D. Grupp, and H. Lezec, Opt. Lett. 24, 256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

Kochergin, V.

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Lezec, H.

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, T. Thio, T. Ebbesen, D. Grupp, and H. Lezec, Opt. Lett. 24, 256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, Ann. Physik (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raether, R.

R. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, R.

R. Sambles, Nature 391, 641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroter, U.

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, T. Thio, T. Ebbesen, D. Grupp, and H. Lezec, Opt. Lett. 24, 256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, M. M. J.

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

P. R. Villeneuve, Phys. World 11, 28 (1998).

Walmsley, I. A.

Wolff, P. A.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Grupp, H. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. Ebbesen, Adv. Mater. 11, 860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (Leipzig) (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Physik (Leipzig) 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sambles, Nature 391, 641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Schroter and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. World (1)

P. R. Villeneuve, Phys. World 11, 28 (1998).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of a silver film perforated with an array of subwavelength holes, measured with incoherent light. Dashed curve, Lorentz model fit given by relation  (2). Inset, electron micrograph of a section of the sample, shown both as holes d250 nm and as indentations in the metal surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus. Inset (a), double-pass setup for autocompensation of spatial chirp in a glass wedge for the resolution calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical visibility Vx for light transmitted through the subwavelength hole-array sample (filled circles) and through the bare substrate (open circles). Solid curves, least-squares fits to a Gaussian pulse shape, showing a time delay of 6  fs. The small error bar near the upper right shows a typical standard deviation along the vertical axis. The error along the horizontal axis is 0.7  fs.

Equations (2)

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ΔIx+Δx=ΔI0+αdtERtES*t-x/c×cos4πΔx/λ+ϕ,
Tωγ/2ω-ω02+γ/22,

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