Abstract

Electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation is used to detect electric fields in a GaN UV Schottky photodiode and in a GaN light-emitting diode. The second-harmonic signal is measured as a function of bias voltage and incident laser power. This technique is sensitive to small applied voltages and can be used to track electronic waveforms. The photocurrent generated by this technique is found to be less than 100  pA when the fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies are both below the device bandgap.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Lüpke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 1997 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 24, 496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nakamura and S. F. Chichibu, eds., Introduction to Nitride Semiconductor Blue Lasers and Light Emitting Diodes (Taylor & Francis, London, 2000).
  10. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 24, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. Lüpke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

Berger, V.

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkman, C. H.

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, W.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Devillers, M. A. C.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Di Ventra, M.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Emmerichs, U.

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilligan, J. M.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Godefroy, P.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kizilyalli, I. C.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

G. Lüpke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, S.

Lucovsky, G.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüpke, G.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Lüpke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margaritondo, G.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

Meyer, C.

G. Lüpke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 1997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misewich, J. A.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohlhoff, C.

Pantelides, S. T.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P. K.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tolk, N. H.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hasselt, C. W.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P. T.

Wolter, F.

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, E. Rosencher, V. Berger, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, T. F. Heinz, and J. A. Misewich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. T. Pantelides, J. M. Gilligan, N. H. Tolk, I. C. Kizilyalli, P. K. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and S. F. Chichibu, eds., Introduction to Nitride Semiconductor Blue Lasers and Light Emitting Diodes (Taylor & Francis, London, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of apparatus for EFISH generation and detection. PMT, photomultimplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GaN devices used in this study. a, Image of a GaN blue LED from Ref.  9, p.  302. Used by permission. b, Drawing of the GaN Schottky photodiode as observed through a 10× objective.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnitude of the EFISH signal with change in the magnitude of the reverse bias voltage, Vb, at constant probe laser poser for (a) the LED and (b) the photodiode. Probe laser power dependence of the SH background signal at Vb=0 for (c) the LED and (d) the photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tracking of reverse-bias waveforms across the GaN LED. The 70-mV background SH is not removed from the signal, and the phase difference between the EFISH and the background SH is apparent.

Equations (2)

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I2ωP2ω2χ3Eω2Ev2,
I2ωPv+Pb2=Pv2+2PvPb+Pb2|,

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