Abstract

A novel Zeeman laser-scanning confocal microscope (ZLSCM) is proposed. It has the same configuration as the conventional laser-scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) in which a Zeeman laser in conjunction with a Glan–Thompson analyzer is used. In our system, the analyzer with the bandpass filter, which act simultaneously as a polarization gate and a coherence gate, enhance the collection efficiency of the weak-scattering photons and simultaneously suppress the multiple-scattering photons. The improvement in depth resolution of a ZLSCM in a scattering medium compared with that of a conventional LSCM is discussed and demonstrated experimentally.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

An, K.

Bizheva, K. K.

Boas, D. A.

Cerussi, A. E.

Chou, C.

Chou, Y. H.

Cogswell, C. J.

C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, in Confocal Microscopy, T. Widson, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Dasari, R. R.

Demos, S. G.

Domaschini, V.

Epifanie, M.

Fantini, S.

Feld, M. S.

Fishkin, J. B.

Franceschini, M. A.

Gan, X.

Gratton, E.

Gu, M.

Han, C. Y.

Jarry, G.

Jurczak, M.

Kaiser, R.

Kempe, M.

Khong, M. P.

Knittel, A.

Lyu, C. W.

Maitland, D. J.

Morgan, S. P.

Peng, L. C.

Perelman, L. T.

Rudolph, W.

Sankaran, V.

Schilders, S. P.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schonenberger, K.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, in Confocal Microscopy, T. Widson, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Siegel, A. M.

So, P. T. C.

Somekh, M. G.

Steimer, E.

Tang, Y. H.

Walsh, J. T.

Welsh, E.

Yadlowsky, M.

Yang, C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the ZLSCM: ZL, Zeeman laser; BS, beam splitter; PMT, photomultiplier tube; BPF, bandpass filter; LA, linear amplifier; SA, spectrum analyzer; PC, personal computer; RT, reflecting target; As, Glan–Thompson analyzer; A, aperture; D, driver; PZT, pizoelectric transducer; M, mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

P- and S-polarized waves transmitting through the analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmitted heterodyne signal was attenuated in a scattering medium that comprised a suspension of 1.072μm polystyrene microspheres in water at various volume concentrations in a 10-mm-thick quartz cuvette with a Zeeman laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depth profile of ZLSCM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On-focus tomographic image of a plane mirror with an absorbed letter Y attached to it. The letter Y was out of the range of the depth profile of the ZLSCM.

Equations (1)

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IoutΔωt=RfIpIssin2θscosΔωt,

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