Abstract

We present a novel technique for performing single-ended distributed fiber temperature measurements by use of microwave heterodyne detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering. Brillouin frequency-shift measurements were obtained for a sensing length of 57  km, with a spatial resolution of 20  m. The rms error in frequency measurements at the far end of the sensing fiber was less than 3  MHz, and the overall frequency dependence on temperature was 1.07±0.06 MHz/K.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Horiguchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, Opt. Lett. 21, 758 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. C. Wait and T. P. Newson, Opt. Commun. 122, 141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.
  7. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.
  13. T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1999

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

1998

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, Opt. Lett. 21, 758 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wait and T. P. Newson, Opt. Commun. 122, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Horiguchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

1994

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dhliwayo, J.

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farhadiroushan, M.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

Handerek, V. A.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heron, N.

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Izumita, H.

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lecoeuche, V.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

Lees, G. P.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wait and T. P. Newson, Opt. Commun. 122, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikles, M.

Pannell, C. N.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

Parker, T. R.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

Robert, P. A.

Rogers, A. J.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 22, 787 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

Thevenaz, L.

Tsuji, K.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

Wait, P. C.

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wait and T. P. Newson, Opt. Commun. 122, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 979 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, P. C. Wait, M. J. Cole, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 804 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Izumita, T. Sato, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1674 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Horiguchi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 730 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. C. Wait and T. P. Newson, Opt. Commun. 122, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, in Proceedings of OFS-13 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 349–352.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C—The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), p. 683.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of a wideband microwave coherent spontaneous Brillouin sensor. PS, polarization scrambler; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; 50/50’s, 3-dB fiber couplers. See text for other definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured frequency shift over the whole 57-km sensing fiber length, including the heated fiber section; (b) rms error in frequency shift computed from the data in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of spontaneous Brillouin-backscattered frequency shift for the heated fiber section at 22, 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C. (b) Linear dependence of this frequency shift on temperature.

Metrics