Abstract

A coherent photon scanning tunneling microscope is presented. The setup employs heterodyne interferome-try, allowing both the phase and the amplitude of the optical near field to be measured. Experimental results of measurements on a standing evanescent wave reveal the high resolution that is obtainable with such an approach. In fact we have measured the amplitude and the phase of the near field, with a resolution of 1.6  nm between sample points.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).
  2. M. Ohtsu and H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1044 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Tozeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.
  9. A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.
  10. B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 907–910.
  11. K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-F. Willemin and R. Dändliker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 787 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Tozeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J.-F. Willemin and R. Dändliker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blattner, P.

R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.

P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.

Cohen, S. R.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Willemin and R. Dändliker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.

P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.

Fish, G.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.

A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.

Hori, H.

M. Ohtsu and H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, K.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, P. J.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Nesci, A.

A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Ohtsu and H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Phillips, P. L.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pottage, J. M.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.

Saleh, B.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 907–910.

Schaper, A.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shalom, S.

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 907–910.

Tiziani, H. J.

M. Tozeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tozeck, M.

M. Tozeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willemin, J.-F.

J.-F. Willemin and R. Dändliker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, J. M. Pottage, G. Kakarantzas, and P. St. J. Russell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, G. Fish, S. Shalom, T. M. Jovin, A. Schaper, and S. R. Cohen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J.-F. Willemin and R. Dändliker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Tozeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. Korterik, K. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Blattner, and H. P. Herzig, Proc. SPIE 3749, 74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P. Blattner, C. Rockstuhl, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 68.

A. Nesci, P. Blattner, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, in Nanoscale Optics, Vol. 25 of EOS Topical Meeting Digests Series (European Optical Society, Paris, 2000), p. 52.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 907–910.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

M. Ohtsu and H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photon scanning tunneling microscope with heterodyne detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Standing evanescent wave created by total internal reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) amplitude and (b) phase of a standing evanescent wave. The scan area is 1 μm by 1 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the measured (a) amplitude and (b) phase of the standing evanescent wave. The step is 7.8  nm between sampling points. The solid curves are theoretical calculations m=0.7,θ1=θ2=73°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured (a) amplitude and (b) phase of the standing evanescent wave, with a step of 1.6  nm between sampling points. The scan length is 200  nm. The solid curves are theoretical calculations with θ1=θ2=73° and m=0.78.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Vx,t=Axexpiϕxexpiωt,
Sx=axsinϕx,Cx=axcosϕx,
SNRdB=10logSPOeB,
Eyx,z=E1exp-z/z1expiknsinθ1x+E2exp-z/z2exp-iknsinθ2x,
Λ=λ2nsinθ
Ax=A0exp-z/z01+m2+2mcos2nkxsinθ1/2,
tanϕx=1-m1+mtannkxsinθ,

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