Abstract

We demonstrate a new method for nondestructive imaging of laser-cooled atoms. This spatial heterodyne technique forms a phase image by interfering a strong reference laser beam with a weak probe beam that passes through the cold atom cloud. The figure of merit equals or exceeds that of phase-contrast imaging, and the technique can be used over a wider range of spatial scales. We show images of a dark-spot magneto-optic trap taken with imaging fluences as low as 61 pJ/cm2 at a detuning of 11 Γ, resulting in 0.0004 photons scattered per atom.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, in Bose–Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds., Vol. 140 of Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 67–176.
  5. M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Savalli, G. Horvath, P. Featonby, L. Cognet, N. Westbrook, and C. Westbrook, Opt. Lett. 24, 1552 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).
  10. W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, C.

C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C. C.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cognet, L.

Cornell, E.

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K.

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufree, D. S.

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, in Bose–Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds., Vol. 140 of Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 67–176.

Ensher, J.

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Featonby, P.

Horvath, G.

Hulet, R.

C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, S.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, in Bose–Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds., Vol. 140 of Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 67–176.

Kurn, D. M.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, M.

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewes, M.-O.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miesner, H.-J.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, W.

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, D. E.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackett, C.

C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sackett, C. A.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savalli, V.

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, in Bose–Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds., Vol. 140 of Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 67–176.

Townsend, C. G.

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Druten, N. J.

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C.

Westbrook, N.

Wieman, C.

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, and R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, S. Inouye, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Dufree, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bradley, C. Sackett, and R. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. Anderson, J. Ensher, M. Matthews, C. Wieman, and E. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, M.-O. Mewes, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, Science 273, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, in Bose–Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds., Vol. 140 of Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999), pp. 67–176.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial heterodyne imaging apparatus. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a dark-spot MOT taken at a probe detuning Δ=-11 Γ and reference-to-probe intensity ratio R=20. (b) Image optimized for minimum light scattering: Δ=-11 Γ, R=60. Obtaining this image required that approximately 0.0004 photons be scattered per atom. (c) Side-on image of a dark-sheet trap formed by a 59μm wire image in the repumping beam. The image of the cloud is approximately 51 μm. The right-hand scale is the phase shift in radians.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S/N comparison for phase-contrast (PC) imaging and spatial heterodyne (SH) imaging for two reference-to-probe intensity ratios R. The camera’s read noise is assumed to be b=25 e-, and the quantum efficiency is η=0.5.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ix=Ir+Ip+2IrIpcosχ+2πθk^̇xλ-ϕx,
Ix=Ir+Ip+2IrIpsinϕx.
S/NSH=2ηϕNrNpηNr+Np+b21/2.
S/Nmax=2ϕηNp,
S/NA=2ϕηNpαNp2 ΔΓηNp

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