Abstract

By using the diffracted field of the LP11 mode of a hollow-core optical fiber, we have produced a micrometer-sized, focused dark laser spot in the near field of the fiber. The minimum half-width of the dark spot is less than 1 μm. In particular, by masking the hollow core and metal coating the cladding with a microsphere, we blocked the light propagating in the cladding and obtained a clean dark spot, which may be useful in atom-optical experiments such as with atomic lenses, atom traps, and atom switches.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (4)

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, D. Milam, and W. T. Hill, Opt. Lett. 24, 1805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Manek, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, and R. Grimm, Opt. Commun. 147, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, I. Manek, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Paterson and R. Smith, Opt. Commun. 124, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1971 (1)

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenichel, H.

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallatin, G. M.

Gloge, D.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Gould, P. L.

Grimm, R.

I. Manek, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, and R. Grimm, Opt. Commun. 147, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, I. Manek, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W. T.

Hirano, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. I.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manek, I.

I. Manek, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, and R. Grimm, Opt. Commun. 147, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, I. Manek, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. J.

Milam, D.

Minogin, V. G.

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, D.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakata, T.

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

I. Manek, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, and R. Grimm, Opt. Commun. 147, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, I. Manek, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, Opt. Commun. 124, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renn, M. J.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaki, K.

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheinfein, M. R.

Shim, U.

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, N.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, Opt. Commun. 124, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Stewart, B. W.

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torii, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, O.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Won, C.

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. H.

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. B (1)

S. H. Yoo, C. Won, J. Kim, K. Kim, U. Shim, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, J. Opt. B 1, 364 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (6)

C. Paterson and R. Smith, Opt. Commun. 124, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 96, 123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Manek, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, and R. Grimm, Opt. Commun. 147, 67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 138, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Won, S. H. Yoo, K. Oh, U. Paek, and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 161, 25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, T. Nakata, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 115, 57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

X. Xu, V. G. Minogin, K. Lee, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, K. Sakaki, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, Phys. Rev. A 56, 712 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, B. W. Stewart, K. Choi, and H. Fenichel, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H. Ito, T. Nakata, K. Sakaki, M. Ohtsu, K. I. Lee, and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4500 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, I. Manek, and R. Grimm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity distribution of the LP01 mode on the HOF end facet imaged on a screen for (a) a normal HOF and (b) a metal-coated HOF. (c) scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of the microsphere attached to the HOF center after metal evaporation. (d) Enlarged SEM picture near the hollow-core region with the sphere removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic dimensions of the dark hollow region, measured in terms of the dark-spot radius Rmax and the half-width w, which are in good agreement with the numerical simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental and numerical results of the radial-intensity profiles of the diffracted LP11 mode measured in steps of 5 μm from the HOF end facet z=0. (b) Intensity profiles measured near the focus at z=15, 20, 25, 30 μm.

Equations (1)

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Ux,y,z=z2πU0x0,y01ρ-ik×expikρρ2dx0dy0,

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