Abstract

What is believed to be the first planar optical waveguide was formed in BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal by 2.8-MeV He+-ion implantation with a dose of 2×1016 ions/cm2 and 2.8-MeV P+-ion implantation with a dose of 1×1014 ions/cm2 at room temperature. We observed 21 darks modes for the He+-ion-implanted BIBO waveguides and four dark modes for the P+-ion-implanted waveguides. The refractive-index profile of the He+-implanted BIBO waveguide was analyzed. The data also suggest that the BIBO waveguides formed by MeV He+-ion and P+-ion implantation differ in their developing mechanisms.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Becker, Adv. Mater. 10, 979 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Biesack and L. G. Haggmark, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 174, 257 (1980).

2001 (2)

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Becker, Adv. Mater. 10, 979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. P. Biesack and L. G. Haggmark, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 174, 257 (1980).

Becker, P.

P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Becker, Adv. Mater. 10, 979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biesack, J. P.

J. P. Biesack and L. G. Haggmark, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 174, 257 (1980).

Bohaty, L.

P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Y.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haggmark, L. G.

J. P. Biesack and L. G. Haggmark, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 174, 257 (1980).

Hellwig, H.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liebertz, J.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B. R.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. M.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. H.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Becker, Adv. Mater. 10, 979 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, J. Cryst. Growth 203, 1490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

J. P. Biesack and L. G. Haggmark, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 174, 257 (1980).

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, Opt. Commun. 190, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, Solid State Commun. 109, 249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured relative intensity of the light reflected from the prism versus the effective refractive index of the incident light in a BIBO waveguide formed by 2.8-MeV He+-ion implantation at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index n1 profile of a BIBO waveguide formed by 2.8-MeV He+-ion implantation with a dose of 2×1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. For comparison, the nuclear energy loss as a function of the penetration depth (vacancy distribution) in the BIBO crystal is also represented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the measured TE-mode indices n1 with fitted values of the indices in the BIBO crystal waveguide formed by He+-ion implantation. Filled squares, experimental index values; crosses, calculated values based on the RCM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured relative intensity of the light reflected from the prism versus the effective refractive index n3 of the incident light for the 2.8-MeV P+-ion-implanted BIBO waveguide.

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