Abstract

An endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system based on a microelectromechanical mirror to facilitate lateral light scanning is described. The front-view OCT scope, adapted to the instrument channel of a commercial endoscopic sheath, allows real-time cross-sectional imaging of living biological tissue via direct endoscopic visual guidance. The transverse and axial resolutions of the OCT scope are roughly 20 and 10.2 μm, respectively. Cross-sectional images of 500×1000 pixels covering an area of 2.9 mm×2.8 mm can be acquired at 5 frames/s and with nearly 100-dB dynamic range. Applications in thickness measurement and bladder tissue imaging are demonstrated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).
  4. A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).
  15. H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, presented at the 15th IEEE International MEMS Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 20–24, 2001.

2000

1999

1998

Y. T. Pan and D. L. Farkas, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and F. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastacky, S.

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

Bonner, F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and F. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Krtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenzinski, M. E.

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chumakov, Yu. P.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

Denisenko, A. N.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Erdmann, L.

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

Farkas, D.

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

Farkas, D. L.

Y. T. Pan and D. L. Farkas, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedder, G. K.

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, presented at the 15th IEEE International MEMS Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 20–24, 2001.

Feldchtein, F. I.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Krtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriel, K. J.

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

Gelikonov, G. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, V. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Gladkova, N. D.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E.

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Kobayashi, K.

Krtner, F.

Krtner, F. X.

Kuranov, R. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Kuznetzova, I. A.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Lavelle, J. P.

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J.

Pan, Y.

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, presented at the 15th IEEE International MEMS Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 20–24, 2001.

Pan, Y. T.

Y. T. Pan and D. L. Farkas, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

Park, B.

Pitris, C.

Pochinko, V. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Saxer, C.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and F. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Shakhova, N. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Shakov, A. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

Snopova, L. B.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O. S.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. A.

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung, R.

Wang, L.-H.

Wong, C.

Xie, H.

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, presented at the 15th IEEE International MEMS Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 20–24, 2001.

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and F. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zeidel, M.

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, X.

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

Dermatology

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and F. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. T. Pan and D. L. Farkas, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Express 1, 421 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Tearney, M. E. Brenzinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. T. Pan, J. P. Lavelle, S. Bastacky, M. Zeidel, and D. Farkas, “Detection of tumorgenesis in rat bladders with optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. (to be published).

H. Xie, X. Zhu, L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, and G. K. Fedder, in Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop77 (2000).

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, presented at the 15th IEEE International MEMS Conference, Las Vegas, Nev., January 20–24, 2001.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the endoscopic OCT system. Insets (A) and (B), optical arrangement and photograph of the distal OCT scope, respectively; BBS, broadband source; PD, photodiode, G, galvanometric mirror. Other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron micrograph of the CMOS–MEMS mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional OCT of two stacked microscope glass slides with thicknesses of 225 μm and 1  mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo two dimensional endoscopic OCT of porcine bladder through cystotomy: U, urothelium; SM, submucosa; MS, muscularis layer.

Equations (1)

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θ=kE1,E2,t1,t2LΔαΔTV2,

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