Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characteristics of a step-index glass-clad polymer optical fiber that uses a novel fluorescent stilbenoid compound for lasing and amplification applications. The compound, 1,4-bis(4-diphenyl-amino-styryl)-benzene, is specifically designed for the blue region of the spectrum and has a very high quantum yield of 0.85 in a solid-state polymer host and a large Stokes shift. Significant spectral narrowing and superlinear increase of output intensity are observed under photoexcitation at 355  nm, which are indicative of the occurrence of amplified spontaneous emission. By means of gain spectroscopy, a large optical gain of up to 36 cm-1 at 494  nm has been obtained for the fiber when it is transversely photoexcited at 12 mJ/cm2. The waveguide loss has been measured to be 0.7 cm-1 at 494  nm. The demonstration of high gain and low waveguide loss has favorable implications for the construction of a very compact, tunable coherent light source.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).
  8. A. E. Siegmann, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  9. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  10. M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Andersson, M. R.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ando, A.

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Bao, Z.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Batlogg, B.

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanawa, T.

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F. H.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H. H.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Imai, N.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Katz, H. E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kloc, Ch.

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kretsch, K. P.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Kuriki, K.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Nalamasu, O.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, S.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Rost, H.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Sasaki, K.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiortino, P.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Schön, J. H.

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegmann, A. E.

A. E. Siegmann, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teuschel, A.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Tillmann, H.

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Timiko, A.

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S.

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Yoda, O.

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dodabalapur, M. Berggren, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, A. Timiko, P. Schiortino, E. Laskowski, H. E. Katz, and O. Nalamasu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 67 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, Nature 382, 695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Sci. News (1)

F. H. Henari, K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, H. Rost, S. Pfeiffer, A. Teuschel, H. Tillmann, and H. H. Hörhold, Photon. Sci. News 4(1), 5 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. D. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. K. Miller, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Kobayashi, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Tamura, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, Proc. SPIE 3623, 206–214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, Science 273, 1833 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schön, Ch. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E (1)

S. Muto, A. Ando, O. Yoda, T. Hanawa, and H. Ito, Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. E 70, 317 (1987).

Other (2)

A. E. Siegmann, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra from the fibers for excitation lengths of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.30  cm. The fluence was 12 mJ/cm2. The inset shows the molecular structure of 1,4-bis(4-diphenylamino-styryl)-benzene (SP35).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linewidth (FWHM) as a function of excitation length for the SP35-doped fiber. The fluence was 12 mJ/cm2. The arrows indicate the data points from which the emission spectra in Fig.  1 are taken.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output intensity at the peak of the emission spectrum as a function of excitation length. The superlinear increase of the emission intensity can be clearly seen. The solid curve is fitted to the data by use of Eq.  (1). The discrepancies between the data and the fitted curve at longer excitation length are due to gain saturation. The net gain coefficient was determined to be 36 cm-1 at 494  nm under photoexcitation at 12 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output intensity at the ASE wavelength as a function of the position of the photoexcited region. The solid curve is fitted to the data by use of the equation Iλ=I0exp-αL, where α is a loss coefficient, L is the distance of the excited region from the fiber end, Iλ is the emission intensity at the fiber end, and I0 is used as a fitting parameter. The loss coefficient was measured to be 0.7 cm-1 at the ASE peak wavelength of 494  nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iλ=Aγλexpγλl-1,
Iλ=I0exp-αλL,

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