Abstract

Calcium ions are laser cooled in a Paul trap by use of a grating-stabilized UV laser diode. Unusual quantum jumps or fluctuations in the fluorescence signal are observed without application of any shelving lasers. It has become clear that such phenomena can be ascribed to shelving transitions induced by background 393-nm spontaneous photons emitted from the laser medium. Shelving transitions are suppressed by use of an interference filter, and the ions are successfully cooled to crystallization temperature with sufficient reproducibility.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.
  2. S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Steane, Appl. Phys. B 64, 623 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, and K. Hayasaka, Opt. Lett. 17, 1140 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Steane, Appl. Phys. B 64, 623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, P. A.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Desaintfuscien, M.

B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.

Donald, C. J. S.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Fermigier, B.

B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.

Hayasaka, K.

K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, and K. Hayasaka, Opt. Lett. 17, 1140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houssin, M.

B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.

Imajo, H.

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, and K. Hayasaka, Opt. Lett. 17, 1140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lucas, D. M.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mundt, A.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, W.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmukai, R.

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plumelle, F.

B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.

Roos, C. F.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, Th.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, D. N.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steane, A.

A. Steane, Appl. Phys. B 64, 623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steane, A. M.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, D. A.

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, and K. Hayasaka, Opt. Lett. 17, 1140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, and K. Hayasaka, Opt. Lett. 17, 1140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Urabe, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, and R. Ohmukai, Appl. Phys. B 67, 223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Steane, Appl. Phys. B 64, 623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, S. Urabe, and M. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L687 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. A. Barton, C. J. S. Donald, D. M. Lucas, D. A. Stevens, A. M. Steane, and D. N. Stacey, Phys. Rev. A 62, 032503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Th. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Fermigier, M. Houssin, F. Plumelle, and M. Desaintfuscien, in Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 443.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence of two crystallized calcium ions in a Paul trap versus time for the ND filter transmissions of (a) 15%, (b) 30%, and (c) 80%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence of calcium ions in the cloud state versus time for ND filter transmissions of (a) 92% and (b) 15%. We have turned off the 866-nm IR beam near 23  s in each case to determine the background levels, represented as dotted lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence spectrum of calcium ions with an interference filter inserted in the UV-beam path. Formation and melting of a crystal are observed as discontinuous changes in the fluorescence signal. (b) Fluorescence of the same ions with the interference filter removed. Unlike in (a), no crystallization is observed, and the spectrum is seriously degraded by shelving transitions.

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