Abstract

Scintillation in measured wave fronts adds spurious dislocations and deformations to their reconstruction. The source of the problem is caustics formed by aberrations in intermediate planes. I propose to use intentional caustics to measure wave fronts under severe conditions such as low light level, fast scale variations, large aberrations, and discontinuities in the wave front. A simple realization is based on the Hartmann–Shack sensor, which samples the wave front with a lenslet array. Movement of the lenslets’ foci is linear with slope changes. Here the lenslets are effectively formed in an acousto-optic device: Two standing waves are launched perpendicularly to the light beam and to each other. At some distance down the beam, each wave creates a comb of caustics, and the two orthogonal combs add up to an array of caustic spots. The spatial frequency of the array is linear with the temporal frequency of the standing sound waves. A simple Fourier demodulation scheme supplies the two wave-front gradients.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sanchez, V. Orlov, and S. Cuevas, “Efficiency of the Hartmann test with different subpupil forms for the measurement of turbulence-induced phase distortions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1299 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

1996

1993

1990

L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).

F. Roddier, “Variations on a Hartmann theme,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981

E. Ribak and E. Gazit, “Simple non-polarizing high-frequency modulator for interferometry,” J. Phys. E 14, 804 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Balakin, L. V.

L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).

Balakshi, V. I.

V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Balakshii, V. I.

L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, The Diffraction of Light by Ultrasound (Academic, London, 1966).

Cheselka, M.

Cuevas, S.

Gazit, E.

E. Ribak and E. Gazit, “Simple non-polarizing high-frequency modulator for interferometry,” J. Phys. E 14, 804 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gershnik, E.

Kostianowski, S.

Lipson, S. G.

Orlov, V.

Parygin, V. N.

V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E.

E. Ribak and E. Gazit, “Simple non-polarizing high-frequency modulator for interferometry,” J. Phys. E 14, 804 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ribak, E. N.

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “Variations on a Hartmann theme,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, L.

Tsukerman, E. V.

L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).

Upasena, Kh. A.

V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Voitsekhovich, V.

Appl. Opt.

J. Phys. E

E. Ribak and E. Gazit, “Simple non-polarizing high-frequency modulator for interferometry,” J. Phys. E 14, 804 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

F. Roddier, “Variations on a Hartmann theme,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. I. Balakshi, V. N. Parygin, and Kh. A. Upasena, “Feasibility of recording the phase structure of an optical field by an acoustooptic method,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 517 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.

L. V. Balakin, V. I. Balakshii, and E. V. Tsukerman, “Acoustooptic multifrequency detector of light-wave front,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 287 (1990).

Other

M. V. Berry, The Diffraction of Light by Ultrasound (Academic, London, 1966).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

When a wave front passes through an acoustic wave, it suffers from periodic delays. At some distance away from the cell, caustic lines are created, switching between the two phases where the sound wave spends most of its time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An image of the mirror is formed on the detector after a wave passes through the acousto-optics cell. In another arrangement, the two last lenses form a telescope. The cell can be placed before, after, or between the lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Standing acoustic waves emanate from transducers at 45° and 135° to create a cross pattern of bright spots. At 1.256  MHz (left) the caustics are weak because of low power, but at 3.388  MHz (right) they are clear. Two protrusions on the mirror, which bend the grids, are visible. They are 1.2 μm and 1  mm across. Other artifacts are due to spots on the optics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One-dimensional caustics from sound waves at 0.97  MHz (top) and 1.20  MHz (bottom). Left, images, background subtracted. Center, Fourier transforms. The sidelobes slide outside with the sound frequency. Demodulation means shifting only one sidelobe to the center and transforming back. SQRT(FFT), square root of the FFT amplitude. Right, phase of the inverse transform, representing the horizontal gradient of the wave front. Apart from the angle of the sound wave and the larger field, conditions were as for Fig.  3. The results are similar, except for a small multiplicative factor.

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