Abstract

We propose a method of near-field recording in a space that is quite apart from the original source (generator) of optical near fields. The method is based on the recently developed technique of near-field holography. Experiments based on our method have shown that near fields that originate from sub-diffraction-limit-sized objects can be stored in a photorefractive crystal 2  mm apart from the crystal surface, resulting in the retrieval of sub-diffraction-limit-sized spots. This means that our scheme can provide a method for multilayer (stackwise) near-field storage and, thus, contribute to a significant enhancement of the storage capacity of near-field optical memory.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. D. Milster, Proc. IEEE 88, 1480 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3351 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1491 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1601 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2645 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K.-Y. Kim and B. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1835 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Commun. 115, 115 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. These near-field object waves spread broadly once they are converted into propagating waves in the crystal. Therefore their intensities in the deep position from the air–crystal interface might not be enough for gratings with sufficient modulation depths to be formed, which gives a limit to the maximum recording distance of the near-field holograms from the crystal surface.
  11. We note that the spot size (FWHM) along one axis (perpendicular to the c axis of the crystal) is much larger than that along the other axis. This is so because, in our configuration, gratings (interference patterns) are formed mostly along one direction (parallel to the c axis). The efficiency of grating formation along the other direction is quite low because the grating vectors of interference patterns deviate as much as 45° from the c axis, resulting in one-dimensional confinement only.
  12. The fiber tip used in the experiment for Fig.  2 was different from the one used for Fig.  3. Although the tips were fabricated by the same chemical etching method, slight differences in such conditions as etching time, volume ratio (concentration) of HF or NH4F, and environmental temperature could cause the fiber tips to have not only different sizes but also different shapes, which could change the coupling efficiency of the evanescent wave to the crystal and the reconstruction efficiency. This difference in the characteristics of the fiber tips explains the difference in the retrieved spot widths in Figs.  2 and 3.

2001

K.-Y. Kim and B. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. D. Milster, Proc. IEEE 88, 1480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Commun. 115, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1601 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Chang, C.-H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, M.

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ichihashi, J.

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Commun. 115, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1601 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim and B. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

K.-Y. Kim and B. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster, Proc. IEEE 88, 1480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monobe, H.

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Commun. 115, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1601 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C.-H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K.-Y. Kim and B. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, and I. I. Smolyaninov, Opt. Commun. 115, 115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, J. Ichihashi, H. Monobe, M. Fujihira, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 106, 173 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

T. D. Milster, Proc. IEEE 88, 1480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

These near-field object waves spread broadly once they are converted into propagating waves in the crystal. Therefore their intensities in the deep position from the air–crystal interface might not be enough for gratings with sufficient modulation depths to be formed, which gives a limit to the maximum recording distance of the near-field holograms from the crystal surface.

We note that the spot size (FWHM) along one axis (perpendicular to the c axis of the crystal) is much larger than that along the other axis. This is so because, in our configuration, gratings (interference patterns) are formed mostly along one direction (parallel to the c axis). The efficiency of grating formation along the other direction is quite low because the grating vectors of interference patterns deviate as much as 45° from the c axis, resulting in one-dimensional confinement only.

The fiber tip used in the experiment for Fig.  2 was different from the one used for Fig.  3. Although the tips were fabricated by the same chemical etching method, slight differences in such conditions as etching time, volume ratio (concentration) of HF or NH4F, and environmental temperature could cause the fiber tips to have not only different sizes but also different shapes, which could change the coupling efficiency of the evanescent wave to the crystal and the reconstruction efficiency. This difference in the characteristics of the fiber tips explains the difference in the retrieved spot widths in Figs.  2 and 3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of left, recording and right, reconstruction of near-field holograms used in this Letter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of the retrieved phase-conjugated light power across the retrieved spot for the hologram stored 2  mm away from the crystal’s surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig.  2 for the stackwise-stored holograms recorded on and at 2  mm apart from the crystal surface. In addition, the light retrieved when the reading beams were in the middle (short-dashed curve, 0.7  mm; dotted curve, 1.4  mm apart from the crystal surface) of the locations of the two holograms is shown.

Metrics