Abstract

We report efficient second-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in birefringently phase-matched GaAs/Al2O3 waveguides pumped at 2.01 μm. By use of pump pulses of 200fs duration and type I interaction, practical second-harmonic average powers of up to 650 μW were obtained, with an average input power of 50 mW. Waveguides of four different widths and two different lengths were investigated, and a normalized conversion efficiency of greater than 1000%W-1cm-2 was obtained for a 1-mm waveguide. Measurements of pump and second-harmonic spectra provided clear evidence of phase matching and depletion of the pump spectrum. The measured bandwidth of the second harmonic was 1.3 nm. From the measurements of transmitted pump power at the phase-matching wavelength, pump depletions of more than 80% were recorded.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Khurgin, E. Rosencher, and Y. J. Ding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1726 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Saher Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Leo, V. Berger, C. OwYang, and J. Nagle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1597 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Phillips, S. Das, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 469 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Phillips, S. Das, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (5)

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, E. Rosencher, and Y. J. Ding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1726 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Saher Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akano, U. G.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J. M.

Berger, V.

G. Leo, V. Berger, C. OwYang, and J. Nagle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, J. P.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Bryce, A. C.

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

P. J. Phillips, S. Das, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delobel, L.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

Hutchings, D. C.

A. Saher Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kleckner, T. C.

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, N.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leo, G.

Marsh, J. H.

A. Saher Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, I. V.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

Nagle, J.

G. Leo, V. Berger, C. OwYang, and J. Nagle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

OwYang, C.

Phillips, P. J.

P. J. Phillips, S. Das, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piva, P.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bravetti, A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, J. Nagle, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Opt. Lett. 23, 331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, E. Rosencher, and Y. J. Ding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1726 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saher Helmy, A.

Sibbett, W.

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

Street, M. W.

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Theilmann, S.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitbread, N. D.

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Theilmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Phillips, S. Das, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. Aitchison, M. W. Street, N. D. Whitbread, D. C. Hutchings, J. H. Marsh, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, Nature 391, 463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the GaAs/Alox waveguide used in the SHG experiment. The position of the optical mode, overlapping with Alox layers, is shown schematically. The magnified part shows the oxidation front between AlAs and Alox.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured second-harmonic power plotted as a function of square of the pump power for a 1-mm waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pump spectrum with a FWHM bandwidth of 26 nm. (b) Solid curve, transmitted, on-resonance depleted pump spectrum; dotted curve, corresponding second-harmonic spectrum (FWHM bandwidth, 1.3 nm) for a 1-mm waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Second-harmonic power plotted as a function of the input pump wavelength for a 1-mm waveguide. The FWHM bandwidth of this curve is 35 nm.

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