Abstract

A rapid dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system and a Raman probe were developed to facilitate real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human skin measurements. Spectrograph image aberration was corrected by a parabolic-line fiber array, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding a 3.3–16-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. Good quality in vivo cutaneous NIR Raman spectra free of interference from fiber fluorescence and silica Raman scattering can be acquired in less than 1   s, which greatly facilitates practical noninvasive tissue characterization and clinical diagnosis.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 187 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. HoloSpec VPT System Operations Manual, Kaiser Optical Systems, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994.
  9. ST-133 Controller Operations Manual, Princeton Scientific Istruments, Monmouth Junction, N.J., 1997.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zeng, “Apparatus and methods relating to high speed Raman spectroscopy,” U.S.  patent pending.
  12. “American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” (American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C., 1986).
  13. P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baraga, J. J.

Barry, B. W.

H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Battey, D. E.

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bruining, H. A.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, P. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, H. G. M.

H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan, A.

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marcon, N. E.

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

Mitchell, M. F.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Owen, H.

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, M. J.

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Puppels, G. J.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rava, R. P.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shim, M. G.

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

Slater, J. B.

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, L. K.

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, A. C.

H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wolthuis, R.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, “Apparatus and methods relating to high speed Raman spectroscopy,” U.S.  patent pending.

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biospectroscopy (1)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, R. Wolthuis, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biospectroscopy 4, S31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

H. G. M. Edwards, A. C. Williams, and B. W. Barry, J. Mol. Struct. 347, 379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 23, 641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, U. Utzinger, and R. Richards-Kortum, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, L. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146 (2000).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Owen, D. E. Battey, M. J. Pelletier, and J. B. Slater, Proc. SPIE 2406, 260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan, N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Proc. SPIE 2388, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Zeng, “Apparatus and methods relating to high speed Raman spectroscopy,” U.S.  patent pending.

“American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” (American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C., 1986).

HoloSpec VPT System Operations Manual, Kaiser Optical Systems, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994.

ST-133 Controller Operations Manual, Princeton Scientific Istruments, Monmouth Junction, N.J., 1997.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the skin Raman probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a 100μm slit on the CCD through the HoloSpec spectrograph, demonstrating the image aberration. (b) CCD image of 58 fibers aligned along a parabolic line at the entrance of the spectrograph, demonstrating that the image aberration has been corrected from (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graphic representation of the curve observed in Fig.  2A, showing the horizontal displacement rounded to pixels (dashed lines). The solid curve is a linear-regression-fitted parabolic line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of in vivo Raman spectra from healthy palm skin obtained in three different acquisition modes and at two different CCD exposure times: A, t=0.05 s; B, t=0.5 s. Curves a and d are from the complete software binning mode, b and e are from the combined hardware and software binning mode, and c and f are from the hardware binning mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of in vivo skin Raman spectra obtained from various body locations of a healthy volunteer. A, palm of the hand; B, fingernail; C, surface of the forearm; D, volar aspect of the forearm.

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