Abstract

The way in which the sequence of phase correction impinges on performance in multiconjugate adaptive optics systems is described. When multiple phase modulators with different conjugate ranges are used, the conjugate images of the phase modulators in the atmosphere must be reimaged in the reverse order post focus, and adaptive phase correction applied in this sequence for perfect amplitude and phase cancellation. Performing the correction without relay optics results in residual amplitude and phase aberrations. It is shown, by Monte Carlo simulations of Fresnel propagation, that the effects of wave optical propagation become nonnegligible at visible wavelengths and for large air masses.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), p. 693.
  2. J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).
  3. R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Barchers and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Improved compensation of turbulence-induced amplitude and phase distortions by means of multiple near-field phase phase adjustments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 399–411 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. L. Ellerbroek, Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (personal communication, January, 2000).
  7. R. J. Sasiela, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Turbulence: Evaluation and Application of Mellin Transforms (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agabi, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Avila, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Azouit, M.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Barchers, J. D.

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), p. 693.

Conan, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Ellerbroek, B.

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Farinato, J.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flicker, R.

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Masciadri, E.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, L.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Sasiela, R. J.

R. J. Sasiela, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Turbulence: Evaluation and Application of Mellin Transforms (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

Ziad, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the Gemini-South 8-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1032–1041 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1998), p. 693.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conan, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “Gemini CP site characterization report,” (Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii, 2000).

B. L. Ellerbroek, Gemini Observatory, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (personal communication, January, 2000).

R. J. Sasiela, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Turbulence: Evaluation and Application of Mellin Transforms (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic two-DM MCAO setup. Dashed arcs, alternative locations for the altitude-conjugated DM: (a) with reimaging of the upper turbulence layer behind the conjugation of the ground-layer and (b) without reimaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SR versus imaging wavelength for the flat three-layer turbulence profile. The Rytov approximation to the scintillation SR is shown for comparison with the conventional AO case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

V-band 0.5 μm SR versus air mass for the median Cerro Pachon seven-layer turbulence profile adapted from Ref.  2.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u=Fu0,zFF-1u0expiπλzκ2,
u0=Fuexpiφz,zexpiφ0.
AO:u=u0,
MCAOa:u=u,
MCAOb:u=FFu0,-zexp-iφz,zexp-iφ0.
σχ2=0.5631k7/6μ5/6,
μ5/6=μ0sec5/6ξk=1Nfkzk5/6,

Metrics