Abstract

We present a novel interferometric technique for performing ellipsometric measurements. This technique relies on the use of a nonclassical optical source, namely, polarization-entangled twin photons generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion from a nonlinear crystal, in conjunction with a coincidence-detection scheme. Ellipsometric measurements acquired with this scheme are absolute; i.e., they do not require source and detector calibration.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Drude, Ann. Phys. Chem. 39, 481 (1890).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  3. H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  4. A. Rothen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 16, 26 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. B. Winterbottom, Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 487 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Mansuripur, Opt. Photon. News 11(4), 52 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).
  9. D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. R. Zeidler, R. B. Kohles, and N. M. Bashara, Appl. Opt. 13, 1938 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. N. Klyshko, Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 1131 (1988) Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 82 (1988).

2001

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, Opt. Photon. News 11(4), 52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

D. N. Klyshko, Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 1131 (1988) Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 82 (1988).

1974

1963

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1957

U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1946

A. B. Winterbottom, Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 487 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1945

A. Rothen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 16, 26 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1890

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. Chem. 39, 481 (1890).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

J. R. Zeidler, R. B. Kohles, and N. M. Bashara, Appl. Opt. 13, 1938 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Branning, D.

D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drude, P.

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. Chem. 39, 481 (1890).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 1131 (1988) Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 82 (1988).

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).

Kohles, R. B.

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

M. Mansuripur, Opt. Photon. News 11(4), 52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGahan, W. A.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Migdall, A. L.

D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rothen, A.

A. Rothen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 16, 26 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Weinfurter, H.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterbottom, A. B.

A. B. Winterbottom, Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 487 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, J. R.

Zeilinger, A.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. Chem.

P. Drude, Ann. Phys. Chem. 39, 481 (1890).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Photon. News

M. Mansuripur, Opt. Photon. News 11(4), 52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

R. J. Glauber, Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

B. E. A. Saleh, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 64, 050101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Branning, A. L. Migdall, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Rothen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 16, 26 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

D. N. Klyshko, Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 1131 (1988) Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 82 (1988).

Trans. Faraday Soc.

A. B. Winterbottom, Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 487 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

H. G. Tompkins and W. A. McGahan, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Reflectometry (Wiley, New York, 1999).

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Entangled-photon quantum ellipsometer. Abbreviations are defined in text. The sample is characterized by the ellipsometric parameters ψ and Δ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unfolded version of the entangled-photon quantum ellipsometer displayed in Fig.  1.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|Ψ=1/2(|HV+|VH),
Nc=CβejΔcosθ1sinθ2+sinθ1cosθ22β2cos2θ1sin2θ2+sin2θ1cos2θ2+2βcosΔcosθ1sinθ1cosθ2sinθ2.
Nc=C/2βejΔcosθ1+sinθ12.

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