Abstract

Reflection-type polarization holograms with phase-conjugated readout are very useful for low-light recording with bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films. The dependence of reflection-type holograms with parallel and orthogonal recording beams on their intensity ratio (1:1–1:20) was investigated. It was found that for orthogonally polarized beams the phase-conjugated signal depends significantly less on the beam intensity ratio than predicted by coupled-wave theory. This finding is of particular relevance for recording of very low object-beam intensities with BR films, e.g., in interferometry, where signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio, owing to the different polarizations of the scattered light and the signal, and with low dependence of the diffraction efficiency on the ratio between the reference and object-beam intensities are obtained. With this asymmetric recording process, holograms were recorded successfully in BR films with a good signal-to-noise ratio at exposures (from the object side) as low as 50 μJ/cm2. These exposures are in the range of those typically used for silver halide films.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).
  3. A. Seitz and N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7183 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Downie and D. A. Timucin, Appl. Opt. 37, 2102 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Opt. Lett. 16, 651 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Thoma and N. Hampp, Opt. Lett. 17, 1158 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Seitz and N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7183 (2000).

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. R. Birge, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41, 683 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

N. Hampp, Chem. Rev. 100, 1755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Seitz and N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7183 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified BR photocycle model. All intermediates except the initial B state and the M state are omitted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the analysis of reflection-type polarization holograms in BR films. Mechanical shutters (SH) are used for the timing of the different beams. The phase-conjugated and the hologram signals are monitored by a calibrated photodiode (DET). The 413-nm line from a krypton laser is used for photochemical erasure of the BR film. Ms, mirrors. Other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the diffraction efficiencies ηHO and ηPC on the ratio of the recording-beam intensities, IRef 1/IOBJ. Diffraction efficiencies of the PC and hologram (HO) are shown for parallel (, circles) and orthogonal (, squares) polarizations of the recording beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical simulation of reflection-type population gratings in BR films with asymmetric recording intensities. For the simulation a BR film with a thickness of d=25 μm and an optical density of OD570nm=2.7 was assumed. An OBJ with intensity IOBJ=0.3 mW/cm2 and a reference beam with IRef 1=0.3 mW/cm2 were used in the simulations. The M-state population is shown in gray, and the white areas represent the B state. Reconstruction with either Ref 1 (hologram) or Ref 2 (PC wave) is indicated. A, , symmetric case; B, , asymmetric case. The average modulation amplitude is higher in the case of asymmetric recording than in the symmetric case. The center of the grating formation shifts in the direction of the weaker OBJ. C, , asymmetric case. The population modulation in the directions of the polarizations of the incident waves is given. PC as well as hologram waves are of the polarization shown in the bottom half of the graph. Whereas the PC wave exits the BR film to the left, the HO wave moves to the right and experiences much higher absorption.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffraction Efficiencies of the PC and the HO signals at 532  nm for Reflection-Type Holograms in a BR Film Depending on the Intensity Ratio of the Recording Beams, IOBJ:IRef 1, for Parallel () and Orthogonal () Polarizations (IRef 1=IRef 2=1 mW/cm2)

Equations (1)

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BtB0=11+γ+γ1+γexp-1+γtτM.

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