Abstract

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a near-field optical-fiber probe was observed. The tip of the probe consists of a triple-tapered fiber with an aluminum coating. For a fiber probe with an aperture size of 100  nm, the SHG conversion factor was 2.0×10-11 cm2/W, which is as large as that of a 5-mm KDP crystal. In a probe-to-probe experiment, we demonstrated that SHG took place at the aluminum coating on the fiber probe.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Pohl and D. Courijon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, ed., Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, H. Y. Liang, C. H. Lee, C. C. Davis, S. Aggarwal, and R. Ramesh, Opt. Lett. 25, 835 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ohtsu, ed., Near-Field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1985).

2000 (2)

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, H. Y. Liang, C. H. Lee, C. C. Davis, S. Aggarwal, and R. Ramesh, Opt. Lett. 25, 835 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Granstrom, M.

R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koshihara, S.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

Lee, G. H.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. Y.

Matsuda, K.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mononobe, S.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R.

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishi, K.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, E. W.

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polonski, V.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, R.

Richards, D.

R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, T.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Song, K. J.

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, R.

R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yeganeh, M.

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, K. Matsuda, T. Saiki, H. Saito, and K. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stevenson, M. Granstrom, and D. Richards, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, V. Polonski, and G. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1756 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihara, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Murphy, M. Yeganeh, K. J. Song, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 318 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1985).

V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, ed., Surface Polaritons: Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).

D. W. Pohl and D. Courijon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, ed., Near-Field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Explanation of the experiments and the fiber probe. (a)  Cross-sectional profile and a SEM image of the near-field probe for SHG. (b)  Schematic drawing of the experimental configuration for measurement of SH intensity from the probe. (c)  Schematic drawing of the probe-to-probe experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation between the fundamental and the SH powers. Squares and circles represent the experimental results with probes A and B, respectively; the solid and dashed lines are fitted to them in the unsaturated region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial distribution of the SH power on probe A measured by the probe-to-probe experiment. (a) Two-dimensional profile of SH distribution. Solid ellipse X, position of the aperture. Dashed curve Y, boundary between the flat and the tapered areas, as shown in Fig.  1(a). (b) Cross-sectional profiles of the distribution along A, the solid and B, the dashed lines marked in (a). Inset, SEM image of the probe corresponding to (a).

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