Abstract

We observed residual stress relaxation by CO2 laser irradiation in the cores of optical fibers by direct stress measurement. It was demonstrated that the mechanical stress was fully relaxed by CO2 laser irradiation and that the remaining stress in the core was thermal stress that was due to a mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of the fiber core and cladding. The net core stresses after relaxation were 17, 68, and 203  MPa in Ge–B-codoped fibers drawn at 0.53, 1.38, and 3.48  N, respectively. Changes in the refractive indices of the cores as a result of residual stress relaxation were also estimated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Electron. Lett. 34, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

U. C. Paek and C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. Primak and D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aben, H.

H. Aben and C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap.  2.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillemet, C.

H. Aben and C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap.  2.
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Han, Y. G.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanawa, F.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, W.

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hutjens, M.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Kim, Y. H.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

U. C. Paek and C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Electron. Lett. 34, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

McLellan, G. W.

G. W. McLellan and E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap.  2, p. 4.

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Electron. Lett. 34, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. C. Paek and C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Park, Y.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

Post, D.

W. Primak and D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak and D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

Shand, E. B.

G. W. McLellan and E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap.  2, p. 4.

Shibata, S.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vengsakar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiechert, D. U.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, T. Abe, and S. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1565 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Electron. Lett. 34, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

U. C. Paek and C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Primak and D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsakar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki, and K. Tajima, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 539 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

H. Aben and C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap.  2.
[CrossRef]

G. W. McLellan and E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap.  2, p. 4.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuM4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for CO2 laser irradiation on bare fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Axial stress profile of fibers drawn with drawing forces of 0.53, 1.38, and 3.48 N at the irradiation center before (dotted curves) and after (solid curves) CO2 laser irradiation with an output power of 75.1  W. Inset, net core stress of the fibers before (circles) and after (squares) irradiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Axial stress profiles of fiber FB 4 at various axial positions after CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 75.1  W and (b) net core stress of fibers FB 3 and FB 4 at various axial positions after CO2 laser irradiation.

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