Abstract

We present a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer for trace-gas monitoring. Difference frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 is used as laser source, yielding a tuning range 3.23.7 μm at a linewidth of 154  MHz. The relatively high average power of 3 to 5  mW favors detection with a small resonant photoacoustic gas cell. Measurements of methane yield a detection limit in the low parts in 106 by volume concentration range.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 259 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.
  4. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
  5. M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 266.
  6. M. W. Sigrist, ed., Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 4.
  7. Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).
  8. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

2000

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

1995

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Curl, R. F.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

De Natale, P.

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

Demtröder, W.

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Giusfredi, G.

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Hollberg, L.

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

Hornberger, Ch.

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

König, M.

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Lancaster, D. G.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Mazzotti, D.

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Mitchell, J.

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Rai, S. B.

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Richter, D.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Seiter, M.

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 266.

Sigrist, M. W.

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 266.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Tittel, F. K.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

Appl. Phys. B

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 67, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

Ch. Hornberger, M. König, S. B. Rai, and W. Demtröder, Chem. Phys. 190, 171 (1995).

Chemical Analysis Series

M. W. Sigrist, ed., Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 4.

Infrared Phys. Technol.

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 665 (1996).

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, J. Mitchell, and L. Hollberg, in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Their Applications, L. Holberg and R. J. Lang, eds., Vol. 31 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 122.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

M. Seiter and M. W. Sigrist, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 266.

Other

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: BS, beam splitter; L1L4, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

30-min recording of the amplitude stability of the DFG laser radiation shows that the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations are typically within ±7%. The horizontal line represents a linear fit of 18,000 data points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement (dotted curve) and Lorentzian fit (solid curve) of the first longitudinal resonance (right) of the photoacoustic cell (left). The resonance occurs at a frequency of 5.7  kHz with a FWHM of 1.37  kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of 100-ppmV methane diluted in synthetic air (79.5% nitrogen, 20.5% oxygen) at 1 bar and room temperature shows good agreement with the reference data from the HITRAN database.8

Equations (3)

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SλQαλP,
Q=νresΔνres,
νres=cs2ml+Δl,

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