Abstract

The fabrication and characterization of gallium-diffused planar waveguides in sapphire are reported. Waveguides were fabricated by diffusion of 60–200-nm-thick films of gallium oxide into c-cut sapphire at 1600 °C for times ranging from 6 to 16  h. Near-field intensity profiles of the guided modes were measured at wavelengths from 488 to 850  nm, and the surface-index elevation was estimated to be up to 0.6±0.02×10-2. Potential applications for low-threshold Ti:sapphire waveguide lasers and for optical integrated circuits with passive and active elements in sapphire are discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD6.
  2. L. M. B. Hickey, E. Martins, J. E. Román, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Lett. 21, 597 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Lett. 19, 1541 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, Electron. Lett. 32, 2238 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

1994

1992

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amin, J.

Anderson, A. A.

L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD6.

Becker, P.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

De Micheli, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinand, M.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grezebesset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hempstead, M.

Hickey, L. M. B.

L. M. B. Hickey, E. Martins, J. E. Román, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Lett. 21, 597 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, Electron. Lett. 32, 2238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD6.

Lallier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martins, E.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Román, J. E.

Sohler, W.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

L. M. B. Hickey, E. Martins, J. E. Román, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Lett. 21, 597 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, Electron. Lett. 32, 2238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, Opt. Lett. 19, 1541 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD6.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Becker, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, Electron. Lett. 32, 2238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. Le, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezebesset, and E. Pelletier, Opt. Lett. 15, 682 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD6.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modal intensity profiles of sample 4 versus wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modal spot size of samples 2–4 versus wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modal spot size of samples 5–7 versus diffusion source thickness at 488 and 633  nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffusion Parameters for Sample Waveguides

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