Abstract

We present a continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier, operating near 1539  nm in conventional dispersion-shifted fiber, with maximum on–off gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency of 13.7 and 13.1  dB, respectively. In addition, we show a novel configuration based on Raman amplification assistance in the parametric gain fiber that further increases the gain and wavelength-conversion efficiencies to 16.7 and 16.2  dB, respectively.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis, and J. R. Taylor, “Broadband Raman amplifiers in the spectral range of 1480–1620  nm,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 117–119.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 411–412.
  9. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 411–412.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis, and J. R. Taylor, “Broadband Raman amplifiers in the spectral range of 1480–1620  nm,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 117–119.
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T.-K.

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kagi, N.

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kishida, S.

K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, S. A. E.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis, and J. R. Taylor, “Broadband Raman amplifiers in the spectral range of 1480–1620  nm,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 117–119.
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, I. D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis, and J. R. Taylor, “Broadband Raman amplifiers in the spectral range of 1480–1620  nm,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 117–119.
[CrossRef]

Washio, K.

K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F. S.

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Gain and saturation characteristics of dual wavelength pumped silica fibre Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1178–1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80  Gbit/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Washio, K. Inoue, and S. Kishida, “Efficient large-frequency-shifted three-wave mixing in low dispersion wavelength region in single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 16, 658–660 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Fibre optical parametric amplifier operating near zero-dispersion wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1935–1937 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yang, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CW fiber optical parametric amplifier with net gain and wavelength conversion efficiency >1,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2336–2338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, “Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. V. Chernikov, S. A. E. Lewis, and J. R. Taylor, “Broadband Raman amplifiers in the spectral range of 1480–1620  nm,” in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 117–119.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 411–412.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of the Raman-assisted FOPA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On–off gain spectra of the Raman-assisted FOPA for parametric pump powers of (a) 0.42  W and (b) 0.93  W. The open symbols represent Raman-only amplification, and the filled symbols represent Raman-assisted parametric amplification. The triangles, circles, and squares represent Raman pump powers of 1.28, 0.59, and 0  W, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On–off Raman gain experienced by the parametric pump for two Raman pump powers. The triangles and circles represent Raman pump powers of 1.28 and 0.59  W, respectively.

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