Abstract

Ultraviolet upconversion signals at 293, 351, and 366  nm were observed from thulium-doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped with a 458-nm Ar+ laser. The upconversion signal’s intensity was enhanced 5× when the fiber was simultaneously pumped with a 458-nm Ar+ laser and a 585-nm dye laser. There is evidence of the formation of defect centers under simultaneous excitation by visible and near-infrared lasers (458 and 750  nm), and there is no evidence of color-center formation when both of the exciting beams are in the visible (458 and 585  nm).

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1540 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

P. R. Barber, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 20, 2195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallee, Opt. Lett. 20, 2484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

1994 (5)

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, Electron. Lett. 30, 136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. H. Chen, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. L. Flohic, J. Y. Allain, G. M. Stephan, and G. Maze, Opt. Lett. 19, 1982 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. McDougall, D. B. Hollis, and M J. P. Payne, Phys. Chem. Glasses 35, 229 (1994).

G. R. Atkins and A. L. G. Carter, Opt. Lett. 19, 874 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, Electron. Lett. 30, 136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alcala, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

Archambault, J. L.

Atkins, G. R.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel and Y. H. Chen, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. R.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1540 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Booth, I. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broer, M. M.

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. L. G.

Cases, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, A.

Chen, Y. H.

F. Auzel and Y. H. Chen, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, Electron. Lett. 30, 136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dixon, J. W.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, Electron. Lett. 30, 136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flohic, M. P. L.

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

P. R. Barber, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 20, 2195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

Hinkel, D. S.

T. E. Wiest and D. S. Hinkel, Proc. SPIE 3075, 47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollis, D. B.

J. McDougall, D. B. Hollis, and M J. P. Payne, Phys. Chem. Glasses 35, 229 (1994).

Humer, W. T.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Laperle, P.

Mackechnie, C. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maze, G.

M. P. L. Flohic, J. Y. Allain, G. M. Stephan, and G. Maze, Opt. Lett. 19, 1982 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

McDougall, J.

J. McDougall, D. B. Hollis, and M J. P. Payne, Phys. Chem. Glasses 35, 229 (1994).

Mejia, E. B.

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1540 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moore, N.

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

Ohya, J.

G. Tohmon, H. Sato, J. Ohya, and T. Uno, Appl. Opt. 36, 3381 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

Paschotta, R.

P. R. Barber, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 20, 2195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

Payne, M J. P.

J. McDougall, D. B. Hollis, and M J. P. Payne, Phys. Chem. Glasses 35, 229 (1994).

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, J.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

G. Tohmon, H. Sato, J. Ohya, and T. Uno, Appl. Opt. 36, 3381 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

Starodumov, A. N.

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1540 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, G. M.

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tohmon, G.

G. Tohmon, H. Sato, J. Ohya, and T. Uno, Appl. Opt. 36, 3381 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

Tropper, A. C.

P. R. Barber, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 20, 2195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

Uno, T.

G. Tohmon, H. Sato, J. Ohya, and T. Uno, Appl. Opt. 36, 3381 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

Vallee, R.

Ventrudo, B. F.

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiest, T. E.

T. E. Wiest and D. S. Hinkel, Proc. SPIE 3075, 47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1540 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, Electron. Lett. 30, 136 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. T. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, and T. Uno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742 (1995).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, and R. Alcala, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Auzel and Y. H. Chen, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

J. McDougall, D. B. Hollis, and M J. P. Payne, Phys. Chem. Glasses 35, 229 (1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. E. Wiest and D. S. Hinkel, Proc. SPIE 3075, 47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Paschotta, N. Moore, W. A. Clarkson, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, and G. Maze, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 80.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram of a thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber that depicts the energy upconversion schemes. Upward arrows, downward arrows, dotted arrows, and squiggly arrow represent, respectively, laser excitation, emission, cross-pair relaxation, and nonradiative relaxation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy upconversion spectrum of a thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber observed under 458-nm Ar+ laser excitation. Laser output power, 70  mW. The spectrum in the wavelength region 280–310  nm is shown magnified 5×.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy upconversion spectrum of thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber observed under simultaneous excitation by 458- and 585-nm laser beams. Laser powers at 458 and 585  nm, 70 and 50  mW, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation spectrum of the 351-nm emission observed when the dye laser was tuned in the wavelength region 575–620  nm. Ar+ laser wavelength, 458  nm.

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