Abstract

Since the index of refraction of AgClxBr1-x x<1 is higher than that of AgCl, by diffusing Br- ions into AgCl it was possible to control the index and thus obtain planar waveguides made from silver chlorobromide (AgClBr) on a AgCl substrate. Silver halides are transparent in the mid IR, and it was therefore possible to characterize the waveguides by transmission of 10.6μm CO2-laser radiation through them. In a typical case, the thickness was optically measured and was found to be 65 μm, and the propagation loss was 16  dB/cm. The output-beam profile distribution was determined experimentally and found to be well correlated with a numerical analysis simulation based on a ray-tracing model of the eikonal equation. Planar waveguides that are transparent in the mid IR will likely be useful in numerous applications.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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Y. V. G. S. Murti and R. D. Banhatti, Bull. Mater. Sci. 20, 435 (1997).
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S. E. Plunkett, S. Propst, and M. S. Braiman, Appl. Opt. 36, 4055 (1997).
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F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Mir and J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32, 2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. L. Laskar, Philos. Mag. A 64, 1043 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1985 (1)

D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, Can. J. Phys. 63, 234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. L. Mills, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5864 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. P. Batra and L. M. Slifkin, J. Phys. C 9, 947 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
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1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

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[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

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J. M. Mir and J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
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Y. V. G. S. Murti and R. D. Banhatti, Bull. Mater. Sci. 20, 435 (1997).
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Batra, A. P.

A. P. Batra and L. M. Slifkin, J. Phys. C 9, 947 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Berak, J. M.

Bessonov, A. F.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Braiman, M. S.

Bunimovich, D.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32, 2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M. S.

Chang, T. Y.

J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

Cheo, P. K.

Craford, M. G.

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J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975).

DeRowe, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deryvgin, L. N.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, O.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finn, D.

France, P. W.

P. W. France, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[CrossRef]

German, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gotshal, Y.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Groves, W. D.

Gudzenko, A. I.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Herzog, A. H.

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, Can. J. Phys. 63, 234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer, New York, 1995).

Katzir, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich and A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32, 2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sa’ar and A. Katzir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 823 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Klocek, P.

P. Klocek, Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

Komotskii, V. A.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kristianpoller, N.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laskar, A. L.

A. L. Laskar, Philos. Mag. A 64, 1043 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levite, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, Can. J. Phys. 63, 234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. W.

McFee, J. H.

J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McGee, J. D.

J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

D. L. Mills, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5864 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mir, J. M.

J. M. Mir and J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. W.

Murti, Y. V. G. S.

Y. V. G. S. Murti and R. D. Banhatti, Bull. Mater. Sci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. T.

J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Oshinsky, W.

Plunkett, S. E.

Pogosov, G. A.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Propst, S.

Ravid, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sa’ar, A.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1998).

Scharf, V.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shalem, S.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shemesh, D.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shmilevich, A.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simchi, R.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slifkin, L. M.

A. P. Batra and L. M. Slifkin, J. Phys. C 9, 947 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sopori, B. L.

Sotin, V. E.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Swindal, J. L.

Terichev, V. F.

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vann, H. R.

Vasserman, I.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. V. G. S. Murti and R. D. Banhatti, Bull. Mater. Sci. 20, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, Can. J. Phys. 63, 234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. L. Mills, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5864 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

A. P. Batra and L. M. Slifkin, J. Phys. C 9, 947 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. M. Mir and J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. A (1)

A. L. Laskar, Philos. Mag. A 64, 1043 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryvgin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer, New York, 1995).

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975).

P. W. France, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Klocek, Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic composition of Br, Cl, and Ag.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated index of refraction of the graded waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative propagation loss intensity versus distance along the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized intensity of the cross section of the output profile of the waveguide.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CBR1=A1+B1 erfy2D1t,y>0,
ny=ns+ni-nserfy/dr,y>0,
ddsnydr¯ds=n.
ddsnydxds=0.
xz=x0+tgθcosψz,
ddsns+ni-nserfy/drdyds=yns+ni-nserfy/dr.

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