Abstract

We propose and demonstrate the possibility of using a permanently microbent bare optical fiber for detecting chemical species. Two detection schemes, viz., a bright-field detection scheme (for the core modes), and a dark-field detection scheme (for the cladding modes) have been employed to produce a fiber-optic sensor. The sensor described here is sensitive enough to detect concentrations as low as nanomoles per liter of a chemical species, with a dynamic range of more than 6 orders of magnitude.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. N. Fields and J. H. Cole, Appl. Opt. 19, 3265 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Donlagic and M. Zavrsnik, Opt. Lett. 22, 839 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Weiss, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1308 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Anderson and J. A. Brosig, Opt. Eng. 34, 108 (1995).
  8. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. J. Patrick, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artec House, London, 1996), Vol. III.
  12. K. Nakamura and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 304 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

K. Nakamura and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Donlagic and M. Zavrsnik, Opt. Lett. 22, 839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. L. Anderson and J. A. Brosig, Opt. Eng. 34, 108 (1995).

1989 (1)

J. D. Weiss, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

N. Lagakos, J. H. Cole, and J. A. Bucaro, Appl. Opt. 26, 2171 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Berthold, W. L. Ghering, and D. Varshneya, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 870 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1975 (1)

Anderson, B. L.

B. L. Anderson and J. A. Brosig, Opt. Eng. 34, 108 (1995).

Berthold, J. W.

J. W. Berthold, W. L. Ghering, and D. Varshneya, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 870 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brosig, J. A.

B. L. Anderson and J. A. Brosig, Opt. Eng. 34, 108 (1995).

Bucaro, J. A.

Cole, J. H.

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artec House, London, 1996), Vol. III.

Dakin, J.

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artec House, London, 1996), Vol. III.

Donlagic, D.

D. Donlagic and M. Zavrsnik, Opt. Lett. 22, 839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fields, J. N.

Ghering, W. L.

J. W. Berthold, W. L. Ghering, and D. Varshneya, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 870 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jeunhomme, L.

Lagakos, N.

Litovitz, T.

Macedo, P.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

Meister, R.

Mohr, R.

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pocholle, J. P.

Varshneya, D.

J. W. Berthold, W. L. Ghering, and D. Varshneya, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 870 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, J. D.

J. D. Weiss, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

K. Nakamura and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zavrsnik, M.

D. Donlagic and M. Zavrsnik, Opt. Lett. 22, 839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. D. Weiss, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1308 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Berthold, W. L. Ghering, and D. Varshneya, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 870 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

H. J. Patrick, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. L. Anderson and J. A. Brosig, Opt. Eng. 34, 108 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (1)

D. Donlagic and M. Zavrsnik, Opt. Lett. 22, 839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors (Artec House, London, 1996), Vol. III.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup used to deform the optical fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: L, diode laser (670   nm); C, cell containing MB in water; Fs, optical fibers; R, index-matching liquid; D1, detector  1 (Metrologic 45-545); D2; detector  2 (Newport 1815-C).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Core-mode intensity variation with dye concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cladding-mode intensity variation with dye concentration.

Equations (3)

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k-k=2π/Λ,
P=P0exp-γCL,
P=P0exp-γ1CL+exp-γ2CL+exp-γ3CL,

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