Abstract

Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses of just 5  nJ, we produce optical breakdown and structural change in bulk transparent materials and demonstrate micromachining of transparent materials by use of unamplified lasers. We present measurements of the threshold for structural change in Corning 0211 glass as well as a study of the morphology of the structures produced by single and multiple laser pulses. At a high repetition rate, multiple pulses produce a structural change dominated by cumulative heating of the material by successive laser pulses. Using this cumulative heating effect, we write single-mode optical waveguides inside bulk glass, using only a laser oscillator.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 232.
  9. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.
  12. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, Opt. Lett. 24, 1311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 630.
  14. We minimize focusing aberrations by (1) using microscope objectives (Zeiss, Inc.)  that are compensated for aberrations in the Corning 0211 glass, (2) focusing at the minimum aberration depth in the sample 170 μm, and (3) uniformly filling the full aperture of the objective. For NA>0.65, the threshold energies shown in Fig.  1decrease as 1/NA2, indicating that the focusing is diffraction limited.
  15. N. Bloembergen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.
  20. A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 469.
  21. A prism compressor is used to compensate for the dispersion in the microscope objective. The duration of the oscillator pulse at the focus was not measured, but the optical breakdown threshold was slightly lower than that for a pulse known to have a 100-fs duration at the focus. With only a simple prism compressor for dispersion compensation, a pulse duration as short as 15  fs has been achieved at the focus of high-NA objectives; see D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, J. N. Sweetser, R. Trebino, and M. Müller, Opt. Lett. 23, 1046 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Oxford University, London, 1959), p. 256.
  23. K. P. Chen, A. Oettl, P. R. Herman, and R. S. Marjoribanks, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 357.

1999 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, Opt. Lett. 24, 1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (4)

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

N. Bloembergen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 232.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Oxford University, London, 1959), p. 256.

Chen, K. P.

K. P. Chen, A. Oettl, P. R. Herman, and R. S. Marjoribanks, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 357.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Davis, K. M.

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Finlay, R. J.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

Glezer, E. N.

Her, T.-H.

Herman, P. R.

K. P. Chen, A. Oettl, P. R. Herman, and R. S. Marjoribanks, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 357.

Herman, S.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homoelle, D.

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Oxford University, London, 1959), p. 256.

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 469.

Kartner, F. X.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leight, W. A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Libertun, A. R.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 469.

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, M.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marjoribanks, R. S.

K. P. Chen, A. Oettl, P. R. Herman, and R. S. Marjoribanks, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 357.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 232.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

S. H. Cho, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, J. E. Cunningham, and W. H. Knox, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 470.

Mourou, G.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

Murnane, M. M.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 469.

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, N.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 232.

Oettl, A.

K. P. Chen, A. Oettl, P. R. Herman, and R. S. Marjoribanks, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 357.

Perry, M. D.

Poignang, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qui, J.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, Proc SPIE 3616, 143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 232.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

Shelton, R.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 469.

Shore, B. W.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 630.

Smith, C.

Soileau, M. J.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Stuart, B. C.

Sugimoto, N.

Sweetser, J. N.

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wahmer, M.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Williams, W. E.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bloembergen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 375 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignang, and E. Delevaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, M. Mansour, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Eng. 28, 1133 (1989).
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We minimize focusing aberrations by (1) using microscope objectives (Zeiss, Inc.)  that are compensated for aberrations in the Corning 0211 glass, (2) focusing at the minimum aberration depth in the sample 170 μm, and (3) uniformly filling the full aperture of the objective. For NA>0.65, the threshold energies shown in Fig.  1decrease as 1/NA2, indicating that the focusing is diffraction limited.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, W. A. Leight, and E. Mazur, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2000 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 375.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the threshold energy for producing permanent structural change on the NA of the focusing objective for 100-fs laser pulses in Corning 0211. The solid curve shows a fit of Eq.  (1)to the data, yielding Ith=2.8×1017 W/m2 and Pcr=1.5 MW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope images of structures produced in bulk Corning 0211 by a, single 10-nJ, 100-fs laser pulses and b, 25,000 5-nJ, sub-100-fs pulses at a 25-MHz repetition rate. In both cases the pulses were focused by a 1.4-NA microscope objective.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope image of waveguides written inside bulk glass by a 25-MHz train of 5-nJ, sub-100-fs pulses focused by a 1.4-NA microscope objective. The sample was translated at 20 mm/s perpendicularly to the incident direction of the laser beam. The inset shows one end face of a waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguide output profile at 633  nm. The points correspond to a cross section of the near-field mode, and the curve represents a best-fit Gaussian. The inset shows a CCD image of the near-field mode.

Equations (1)

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Eth=Ithτλ2πNA2+Ithλ2/Pcr,

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