Abstract

Single-mode X couplers and three-dimensional waveguides are fabricated in transparent glasses by use of an unamplified femtosecond laser generating energies of up to 100  nJ. Changing fabrication parameters such as power and scanning speed permits creation of waveguides with a wide range of structures and refractive-index difference. Optical coherence tomography shows large refractive-index changes of up to 10-2 in the waveguides; these changes are consistent with guided mode analysis.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
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Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
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Borrelli, N. F.

Bouma, B. E.

Brodeur, A.

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Cho, S. H.

Davis, K. M.

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Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, K. A. Winick, Y. Sikorski, A. Said, and P. Bado, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CMX5.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

Glezer, E. N.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, K.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Her, T.-H.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homoelle, D.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, K.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kumagai, H.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Opt. Commun. 168, 287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Opt. Commun. 168, 287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nishii, J.

Obara, M.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Opt. Commun. 168, 287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

C. Florea, K. A. Winick, Y. Sikorski, A. Said, and P. Bado, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CMX5.

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, K. A. Winick, Y. Sikorski, A. Said, and P. Bado, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CMX5.

Smith, C.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, T.

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waehmer, M.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wielandy, S.

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, K. A. Winick, Y. Sikorski, A. Said, and P. Bado, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CMX5.

Yamada, K.

Appl. Phys. A

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, Electron. Lett. 36, 226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. H. Cho, H. Kumagai, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, Opt. Commun. 168, 287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Florea, K. A. Winick, Y. Sikorski, A. Said, and P. Bado, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper CMX5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of OCT measurement, (b) microscopic side view, (c) OCT image, and (d) OCT signal from a single-mode waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phase-contrast microscopic top view of the X coupler; the ratio of the horizontal and vertical scale is 4:1 to better display the structure. (b) Far-field mode pattern of output of an X coupler. (c) Cross section of the near-field mode (open circles) with best-fit Gaussian (curves) at the two outputs of an X coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Series of cross-sectional OCT images of an X coupler. The horizontal and vertical scales have been changed to better display the waveguides. The dotted lines show the position of the waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Microscopic side view of 3D stacked waveguides in glass. (b) Image of the near field of the waveguides with a He–Ne laser beam coupled into one of the waveguides.

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