Abstract

A novel method of detecting the spectral width and wavelength of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with a minimum number of experimental tools is demonstrated. The method relies on the photoionization probability of an atom as a function of the electric field. A tunable laser source in the XUV is used that is based on higher-harmonic generation of the frequency-doubled output of a 50-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The bandwidth and the wavelength of the seventh harmonic 57 nm are detected with Ne, and the resolving power is λ/Δλ=105.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. Spectrometer resolutions can be found on the Web pages of numerous synchrotron radiation facilities. Examples of a description of a grazing-incidence vacuum spectrograph can be found in Refs.  2–, 3,4.
  2. F. G. Meijer, J. Phys. E 12, 129 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. G. Meijer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 367 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. W. Schlag, ZEKE Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1998).
  6. L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. L. Huillier and Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Bakker, W. Joosen, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 45, 5126 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Sayama and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 137, 295 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. There is a fixed deviation of the observed angle and the calculated phase-matching angle θpmooe for a negative, uniaxial crystal of 2.5°. Apparently the crystal was cut under 42.5° and not 45° as quoted.
  17. U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. D. Noordam, H. J. Bakker, M. P. de Boer, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, Opt. Lett. 15, 1464 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1949).
  21. T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

S. Sayama and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 137, 295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. L. Huillier and Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. J. Bakker, W. Joosen, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 45, 5126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1979 (1)

F. G. Meijer, J. Phys. E 12, 129 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Bakker, H. J.

Balcou, Ph.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Huillier and Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Budil, K. S.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, U.

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Christov, I. P.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, M. P.

Ditmire, T.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Fadley, C. S.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gallagher, T. F.

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Gürtler, A.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Heimann, P. A.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huff, W. R. A.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huillier, A. L.

A. L. Huillier and Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, Z.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Joosen, W.

H. J. Bakker, W. Joosen, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 45, 5126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kellar, S. A.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Krishnamurthy, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumbhakar, P.

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Larson, J.

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, J.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

McKinney, W.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, F. G.

F. G. Meijer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, J. Phys. E 12, 129 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moler, E. J.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1949).

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Murnane, M. M.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagahori, A.

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Noordam, L. D.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, W. Joosen, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 45, 5126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. D. Noordam, H. J. Bakker, M. P. de Boer, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, Opt. Lett. 15, 1464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Odom, J. W.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Sayama and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 137, 295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osterwalder, A.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robicheaux, F.

F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosca-Pruna, F.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudra, A. M.

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sayama, S.

S. Sayama and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 137, 295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

Schlag, E. W.

E. W. Schlag, ZEKE Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1998).

Shirley, D. A.

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Svanberg, S.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.

Vrakking, M. J. J.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C. G.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warntjes, J. B. M.

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wesdorp, C.

F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zerne, R.

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. (1)

Z. Hussain, W. R. A. Huff, S. A. Kellar, E. J. Moler, P. A. Heimann, W. McKinney, H. A. Padmore, C. S. Fadley, and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron. Spectrosc. 80, 401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Larson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C. G. Wahlstrom, and S. Svanberg, J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

F. G. Meijer, J. Phys. E 12, 129 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. G. Meijer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. C. Bhar, P. Kumbhakar, U. Chatterjee, A. M. Rudra, and A. Nagahori, Opt. Commun. 176, 199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sayama and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 137, 295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, M. Krishnamurthy, J. W. Odom, and S. R. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, W. Joosen, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 45, 5126 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Robicheaux, C. Wesdorp, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 62, 043404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Huillier and Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. B. M. Warntjes, A. Gürtler, A. Osterwalder, F. Rosca-Pruna, M. J. J. Vrakking, and L. D. Noordam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Spectrometer resolutions can be found on the Web pages of numerous synchrotron radiation facilities. Examples of a description of a grazing-incidence vacuum spectrograph can be found in Refs.  2–, 3,4.

E. W. Schlag, ZEKE Spectroscopy (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1998).

There is a fixed deviation of the observed angle and the calculated phase-matching angle θpmooe for a negative, uniaxial crystal of 2.5°. Apparently the crystal was cut under 42.5° and not 45° as quoted.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1949).

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Coulomb plus electric field potential of a Rydberg electron. The XUV pulse excites a superposition of Rydberg states. Field ionization occurs only for the fraction of Rydberg states above the created saddle point. The field strength is increased from left to right, yielding a higher electron flux. b, Schematic of the experimental setup. The output of a Ti:sapphire laser is frequency doubled with a 20-mm KDP crystal. The resulting UV pulse is separated from the fundamental and focused into a Xe gas jet by a 50-cm lens. Ne atoms in a pulsed gas jet are field ionized between two electrically charged plates. Electrons can pass through a slit in one plate and are detected by a multichannel plate and an anode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral profiles (solid curves) of the frequency-doubled pulses from a 20-mm KDP crystal at various crystal angles. The fundamental IR pulse (dotted curve) is shown as a function of wavelength divided by 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Field ionization yield as a function of applied electric field for the seventh harmonic of a UV pulse at 403.00  nm. b, Derivative of the curve shown in a as a function of energy. The maximum is at 21.536  eV, and the FWHM is 15  meV. The dotted curve is the fundamental UV pulse, where the energy scale is multiplied by 7. The Ne ionization potential is indicated by IP. Inset, ac Stark shift–broadened narrow-band laser pulse 2.0 cm-1 at various energies, detected in Rb with the method described in the text. The energy steps are 3.5  meV, where states are populated near n20.7, 22.0, 23.5, 25.3, 27.7, 30.9, 35.5, 43, 60 (left to right). The energy scale is twice that of b.

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