Abstract

We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), p. 175.
  2. C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Ch. Marand and P. D. Townsend, Opt. Lett. 20, 1695 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).
  10. P. C. Sun, Y. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1062 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. S. Shi and G.-C. Guo, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1011 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).
  15. J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Durt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2476 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

2000 (4)

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Durt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Shi and G.-C. Guo, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), p. 175.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), p. 175.

Breguet, J.

J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carenco, A.

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

Chefles, A.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

Duraffourg, L.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durt, T.

T. Durt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Sun, Y. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1062 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J. D.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Shi and G.-C. Guo, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Jiang, Y. K.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marand, Ch.

Mazurenko, Y.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).

P. C. Sun, Y. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1062 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Merolla, J.-M.

Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, G. L.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Muller, A.

J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Phoenix, S. J. D.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

Rao, R.

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B. S.

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Shi and G.-C. Guo, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Sun, Y. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1062 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

Ch. Marand and P. D. Townsend, Opt. Lett. 20, 1695 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. S. Shi, Y. K. Jiang, and G.-C. Guo, Appl. Phys. B 70, 415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, Electron. Lett. 29, 634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. C. Chen, H. Porte, A. Carenco, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1363 (1997).

J. Mod. Opt. (5)

J. Breguet, A. Muller, and N. Gisin, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, and A. Chefles, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

B. S. Shi and G.-C. Guo, J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Mazurenko, J.-M. Merolla, and J.-P. Goedgebuer, Opt. Spectrosc. 86, 145 (1999).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. A. Slutsky, R. Rao, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Duraffourg, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Durt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ekert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), p. 175.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the amplitude-modulation transmission system. Abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental power spectra obtained with a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer for phase difference ΔΦ=Φ1-Φ2. The scale of the horizontal axis is 625  MHz/division.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E1t=12E0t1+jexpjmcosΩt+Φ1,
E1t12E0t1+j-m2expjΩt+Φ1-m2exp-jΩt+Φ1.
E2t14E0t2+j-1m2expjΩtexpjΦ1+expjΦ2+j-1m2exp-jΩt×exp-jΦ1-exp-jΦ2.
iω0+Ω=18m2E02cos2Φ2-Φ1/2,iω0-Ω=18m2E02sin2Φ2-Φ1/2.

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