Abstract

For lumped-element electro-optic modulators, the sensitivity ϕ/V of the phase, ϕ, in response to an applied voltage V is related to the optical group delay, Tg, and the bandwidth, Δω. This relationship imposes a fundamental trade-off between the sensitivity and the bandwidth of electro-optic modulators: ϕ/VΔω=dn/dVω/n, where n is the optical index. A similar relationship for traveling-wave modulators sets an upper limit on ϕ/V that is proportional to Tg.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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