Abstract

Dark photorefractive photovoltaic spatial solitons are demonstrated at 532  nm in nominally undoped and slightly Fe-doped LiNbO3 planar optical waveguides. The spatial solitons are observed in a transient regime before transverse modulation instability occurs. Their widths are intensity independent as predicted by theory. Meanwhile, excited mode distribution and Fe-doping concentration are shown to influence soliton width. The guiding properties of soliton-induced waveguides are also presented.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).
  5. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
  6. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772 (1997).
  7. Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rep. 298, 81 (1998).
  8. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).
  9. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  10. D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).
  11. D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Yeh, in Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics, J. W. Goodman, ed. (Stanford U. Press, Stanford, Calif., 1993), Chap.  3.
  15. N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. W. Song, C. Zhang, and P. J. Talbot, Appl. Opt. 32, 7266 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rep. 298, 81 (1998).

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

1993 (2)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Song, C. Zhang, and P. J. Talbot, Appl. Opt. 32, 7266 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M.

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

Chen, Z.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Porto, P.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772 (1997).

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fressengeas, N.

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herden, C.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hukriede, J.

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).

Kivshar, Y. S.

Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rep. 298, 81 (1998).

Krätzig, E.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kugel, G.

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rep. 298, 81 (1998).

Mamaev, A. V.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maufoy, J.

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Moretti, P.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772 (1997).

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shandarov, V.

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. F.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Q. W.

Talbot, P. J.

Taya, M.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772 (1997).

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wesner, M.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 921 (1998).

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, in Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics, J. W. Goodman, ed. (Stanford U. Press, Stanford, Calif., 1993), Chap.  3.

Zhang, C.

Zozulya, A. A.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Kip, M. Wesner, C. Herden, and V. Shandarov, Appl. Phys. B 68, 971 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Shandarov, D. Kip, M. Wesner, and J. Hukriede, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

NATO ASI Ser. B (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, M. F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and G. Salamo, NATO ASI Ser. B 369, 259 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, Opt. Commun. 188, 69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rep. 298, 81 (1998).

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1994).

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. A 54, 870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, Phys. Rev. E 54, 6866 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Yeh, in Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics, J. W. Goodman, ed. (Stanford U. Press, Stanford, Calif., 1993), Chap.  3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images and horizontal profiles in an Fe-doped waveguide: (a) entrance face, (b) exit face for the TE0 and TE1 modes (diffraction), (c) exit face for the TE0 and TE1 modes (soliton).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images at the exit face of an undoped waveguide, showing the (a) diffracted dark notch, (b) focused dark notch, and (c) guiding property of the soliton-induced waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images at the exit face of an Fe-doped waveguide showing the (a) transient dark soliton, (b) beam dislocation, (c) beam breakup at steady state, and (d) guiding property of the soliton-induced waveguide.

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