Abstract

Temporal Ramsey fringes that are due to light scattering by coherently prepared rubidium atoms diffusing through a cell containing neon as a buffer gas have been observed. The effect leads to increasing magneto-optical rotation of cw light polarization at weak magnetic fields.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1956).
  2. G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. R. Hemmer, M. S. Shahriar, H. Lamelarivera, S. P. Smith, B. E. Bernacki, and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1326 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).
  7. D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Buhr and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 760 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Wynands and A. Nagel, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. XXXV, p. 257.
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Gawlik, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, M. Evans and S. Kielich, eds., Vol. LXXXV of Advances in Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Part 3, p. 733.
  18. D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. Buhr and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. XXXV, p. 257.
[CrossRef]

Bednar, C. J.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B. E.

Bicchi, P.

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buhr, E.

E. Buhr and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dimatcq, N.

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eckstein, J.

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

P. R. Hemmer, M. S. Shahriar, H. Lamelarivera, S. P. Smith, B. E. Bernacki, and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1326 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleishchauer, M.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

W. Gawlik, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, M. Evans and S. Kielich, eds., Vol. LXXXV of Advances in Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Part 3, p. 733.

Giordano, V.

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

P. R. Hemmer, M. S. Shahriar, H. Lamelarivera, S. P. Smith, B. E. Bernacki, and S. Ezekiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1326 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanorsky, S. I.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lamelarivera, H.

Leiby, C. C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merriam, A. J.

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, E.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

E. Buhr and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, A.

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, D. J.

D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R. H.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1956).

Salour, M. M.

M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savino, P.

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schuh, B.

B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shahriar, M. S.

Skalla, J.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

Smith, S. P.

Teets, R.

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, G.

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Willis, C. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yashchuk, V.

D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zambon, B.

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M.

D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. Budker, D. J. Orlando, and V. Yashchuk, Am. J. Phys. 67, 589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. Wynands and A. Nagel, Appl. Phys. B 68, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and J. Skalla, Appl. Phys. B 60, S165 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. B 24, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento B (1)

P. Bicchi, L. Moi, P. Savino, and B. Zambon, Nuovo Cimento B 55, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 100, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Fleischhauer, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, M. D. Lukin, C. J. Bednar, I. Novikova, E. Mikhailov, M. Fleishchauer, V. L. Velichansky, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 62, 023810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. Jain, M. Xia, G. Y. Yin, A. J. Merriam, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Teets, J. Eckstein, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Buhr and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 760 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. XXXV, p. 257.
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, M. Evans and S. Kielich, eds., Vol. LXXXV of Advances in Chemical Physics Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), Part 3, p. 733.

N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1956).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Inset, simplified energy-level diagram of atomic 87Rb. Levels |a1 and |a2 correspond to P3/2, F=1,2,3 and P1/2, F=1. Levels |b and |c correspond to Zeeman sublevels with m=±1 of level S1/2,F=2. Other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time dependence of the normalized intensity of writing pulses E2b and E2c, reading pulse E1b, and the beat note of scattered radiation E1c and reading pulse E1b for magnetic field B=23 mG. The peak intensities are 0.4 mW/cm2 for E1c, 4.9 mW/cm2 for E2b and E2c, and 4.1 mW/cm2 for E1b. The origin of the time scale corresponds to the back edges of the writing pulses. The front edges of reading and retrieved pulses coincide. Inset, the atoms that diffuse (1) out of the beam and then back into the beam, (2) from the outside into the beam, and (3) out of the beam and that (4) remain inside the beam. Only atoms such as those at (1) lead to the fringes. Atoms  (2) have no initial coherence, atoms  (3) leave the interaction region, and atoms  (4) are optically pumped into state |c during the first 10  ns after the reading field is turned on.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission and polarization rotation of cw laser radiation resonant with the D1 line of 87Rb: experimental data (solid curves) and a theoretical prediction that neglects atomic diffusion17– , 18,19 (dotted curve). Inset, rotation angle in the vicinity of B=0.

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