Abstract

Optical signal processing devices based on quasi-phase-matched three-wave mixing and cascaded three-wave mixing in guided-wave geometries have been demonstrated to operate efficiently at practical pump-power levels. We describe operation of such devices in a balanced mode that allows mixing without wavelength offset and separation of mixed output from pump and signal input without wavelength-selective filters. We present a design for an optical-frequency balanced mixer using quasi-phase-matched, cascaded second-order nonlinear processes. Using this design, we fabricated a balanced mixer in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides that has the expected linear and nonlinear optical performance.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.
  7. S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.
  9. K. Mori, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Opt. Lett. 20, 1424 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Chowdhury and L. McCaughan, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 688 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Chowdhury, S. Hagness, and L. McCaughan, Opt. Lett. 25, 832 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Kása, Microwave Integrated Circuits (Elsevier, New York, 1991).
  15. P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.
  16. M. H. Chou, “Optical frequency mixers using three-wave mixing for optical fiber communications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1999).

2000 (5)

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chowdhury, S. Hagness, and L. McCaughan, Opt. Lett. 25, 832 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chowdhury and L. McCaughan, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Brenner, I.

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burkett, W.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Chaban, E. E.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Chou, M. H.

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

M. H. Chou, “Optical frequency mixers using three-wave mixing for optical fiber communications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1999).

Chowdhury, A.

Christman, S. B.

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P. K.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

Fortusini, D.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, M.

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S.

Hallemeier, P.

P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.

Harel, R.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Horton, T.

P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.

Itoh, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kása, I.

I. Kása, Microwave Integrated Circuits (Elsevier, New York, 1991).

Kawahara, M.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K.

P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.

Kosinski, S.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Lenz, G.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G.

P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.

McCaughan, L.

Mikkelsen, B.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Miyazawa, H.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

Morioka, T.

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Mori, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Opt. Lett. 20, 1424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noguchi, K.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Parameswaran, K. R.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

Philen, D.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philen, D. L.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Raybon, G.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Rottwitt, K.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Saruwatari, M.

Scotti, R.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shmulovich, J.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stark, J. B.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

Stegeman, G.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

Xu, C. Q.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, and G. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Kawanishi, M. H. Chou, K. Fujiura, M. M. Fejer, and T. Morioka, Electron. Lett. 36, 1568 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. H. Chou, I. Brenner, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kanbara, H. Itoh, M. Asobe, K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, T. Yanagawa, and I. Yokohama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, G. Lenz, R. Scotti, E. E. Chaban, J. Shmulovich, D. Philen, S. Kosinski, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, T. Elsaessner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), p. 159.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaran, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen, and S. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper PD-33.

I. Kása, Microwave Integrated Circuits (Elsevier, New York, 1991).

P. Hallemeier, K. Kissa, G. McBrien, and T. Horton, paper presented at the 15th Annual National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC), Chicago, Ill., September 26–30, 1999.

M. H. Chou, “Optical frequency mixers using three-wave mixing for optical fiber communications,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) OF balanced mixer structure using directional couplers. The input waves (gray) exit through the bar port, while a π-phase shift between the gratings in each arm biases the mixer output (black) for transmission through the cross port. (b) Schematic drawing of the demonstration device fabricated by use of Y-junctions; the taper delay length adjusts the relative phase of the lower versus upper arms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurements of normalized transmission versus taper delay length; each circle corresponds to a unique balanced mixer device. From the fit (solid curve), a taper delay of 70 μm provides a π-phase shift.

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