Abstract

We have built a 1000μm-diameter silicon nitride deformable mirror for focus-control applications, using micro-optoelectromechanical systems technology. We achieved variable focal lengths from 36 to 360  mm while maintaining zero primary spherical aberration, using a maximum control voltage of 100  V. Active control of spherical aberration of approximately two waves at 660  nm was demonstrated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.
  2. F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.
  3. M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).
  5. G. Vdovin, Opt. Commun. 140, 187 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Burns and V. M. Bright, in Proceedings of the IEEE Microelectromechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 460–465.
  7. D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 38 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sheplak and J. Dugundji, J. Appl. Mech. 65, 107 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

1998

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheplak and J. Dugundji, J. Appl. Mech. 65, 107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Vdovin, Opt. Commun. 140, 187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashcraft, P. V.

D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, P. R.

M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

Bright, V. M.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burns and V. M. Bright, in Proceedings of the IEEE Microelectromechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 460–465.

Burns, D. M.

D. M. Burns and V. M. Bright, in Proceedings of the IEEE Microelectromechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 460–465.

Collings, N.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Courteville, A.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Cowan, W. D.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Dickensheets, D. L.

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dugundji, J.

M. Sheplak and J. Dugundji, J. Appl. Mech. 65, 107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friholm, R.

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gonte, F.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Haroud, K.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Himmer, P. A.

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horenstein, M. N.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

Kino, G. S.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy Mali, R.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

Lee, M.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lutzenberger, B. J.

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perreault, J.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

Plett, M. L.

M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.

Polak-Dingels, P.

M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.

Rochat, E.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Roggermann, M. C.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rush, D. W.

M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.

Sakarya, S.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Sheplak, M.

M. Sheplak and J. Dugundji, J. Appl. Mech. 65, 107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

G. Vdovin, Opt. Commun. 140, 187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 83 (1999).

J. Appl. Mech.

M. Sheplak and J. Dugundji, J. Appl. Mech. 65, 107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. Vdovin, Opt. Commun. 140, 187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. C. Roggermann, V. M. Bright, B. M. Welsh, W. D. Cowan, and M. Lee, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 451 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. L. Dickensheets, P. A. Himmer, R. Friholm, and B. J. Lutzenberger, Proc. SPIE 4178, 90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets, P. V. Ashcraft, and P. A. Himmer, Proc. SPIE 3878, 48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. M. Burns and V. M. Bright, in Proceedings of the IEEE Microelectromechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 460–465.

M. L. Plett, D. W. Rush, P. R. Barbier, and P. Polak-Dingels, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 340–345.

F. Gonte, A. Courteville, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, N. Collings, R. Dandliker, G. Vdovin, and S. Sakarya, in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Opics for Industry and Medicine, G. D. Love, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 346–351.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Cross section of the silicon nitride mirror. The dashed region beneath the PSG layer illustrates the anisotropic etch of the silicon wafer in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). b, Top view of the mirror, illustrating annular electrodes and 10% duty-width segmentation. The small spots are etch holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference images of a 1-mm mirror. The lines indicate the location of the data profile. a, 0  V and b, 65  V applied to the center and outer electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line profiles of the 1-mm-diameter mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation in fourth-order curvature of the 1-mm circular nitride membrane as a result of outer-electrode voltage adjustment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second-order curvature of the 1-mm circular nitride membrane as a result of variation in the outer-electrode voltage.

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