Abstract

We present a new, simple, inexpensive, and highly precise approach to excited-state fluorescence-lifetime-based measurements. The detection system consists of a closed-loop optoelectronic arrangement containing a radio frequency resonance amplifier, a fluorescence excitation light source, a fiber-optic delay line, and a photodetector. The system exhibits auto-oscillations in the form of intensity modulation. The oscillation frequency varies with the modulation phase shift of the fluorescent light. This frequency is used as the detection parameter, which is advantageous because frequency may be measured easily, inexpensively, and with high precision. This technique is well suited for chemical or biosensor applications.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Szmancinski and J. R. Lakowicz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 16–24 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).
  6. E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Information on SNAFL-2 can be found at http://www.probes.com .
  9. S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Szmancinski and J. R. Lakowicz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 16–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

1984 (1)

M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

Anderson, S.

K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babkina, T. V.

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Bambot, S. B.

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buranda, T.

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burkov, V. D.

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Carter, G. M.

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dashkin, A. F.

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Grigor’ants, V. V.

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Gustafsson, U.

Hampton, P.

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holavanahali, R.

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, J. M.

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lackowicz, J. R.

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

H. Szmancinski and J. R. Lakowicz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 16–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Littler, C. L.

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, G. P.

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matayoshi, E.

K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maxson, D. L.

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, T.

M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, M. J.

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, E.

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, E. M.

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radul, A. M.

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Rao, G.

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sekar, M.

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

Svanberg, S.

Svimonishvilli, T.

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swift, K.

K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szmancinski, H.

H. Szmancinski and J. R. Lakowicz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 16–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, M.

M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biotech. Bioeng. (1)

S. B. Bambot, R. Holavanahali, J. R. Lackowicz, G. M. Carter, and G. Rao, Biotech. Bioeng. 43, 1139–1145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Sekar, P. Hampton, T. Buranda, and G. P. Lopez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5135–5141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Nakazawa, T. Nakashima, and M. Tokuda, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 719–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. M. Rabinovich, C. L. Littler, J. M. Kowalski, and D. L. Maxson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1407–1412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. J. O’Brien, E. M. Rabinovich, T. Svimonishvilli, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Proc. SPIE 4263, 170–177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Swift, S. Anderson, and E. Matayoshi, Proc. SPIE 4252, 47–58 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Rabinovich, M. J. O’Brien, S. R. J. Brueck, and G. P. Lopez, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 522–529 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

H. Szmancinski and J. R. Lakowicz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 16–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Telecommun. Radio Eng. (1)

T. V. Babkina, V. D. Burkov, V. V. Grigor’ants, A. F. Dashkin, and A. M. Radul, Telecommun. Radio Eng. 46, 118–121 (1991).

Other (1)

Information on SNAFL-2 can be found at http://www.probes.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the closed-loop system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data at 16× averaging. The lifetime axis was estimated with Eq.  (3) and the known lifetime for the SNAFL solution at pH 9.2.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nL/cΩ+Φ=2πN,
ΔΩ=-gΩτnL/c+gΩτ/ΩΔττ,
ΔΩ=-1/2nL/c+1/2 ΩΔττ.

Metrics