Abstract

A liquid-level sensor based on the refractive-index sensitivity of long-period fiber-optic gratings is proposed and demonstrated. The form of the transmission spectrum of the long-period grating is dependent on the fraction of the length of the long-period grating that is surrounded by the liquid. The sensor shows a large linear range, with sensitivity of 4.8% change in transmission per millimeter, for a long-period grating with a length of 40  mm and a periodicity of 400 μm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), p. 356.
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Iwamoto and I. Kamata, Appl. Opt. 31, 51 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).
  8. H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Duhem, J. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and M. Douay, Appl. Opt. 37, 7223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).

H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Iwamoto and I. Kamata, Appl. Opt. 31, 51 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Cambell, D. K.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cong-Tran, T.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D’Alberto, T. G.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

Duhem, O.

Gunber, M. F.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, N. H.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J.

Iwamoto, K.

James, S. W.

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).

Kakankov, R.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, I.

Kassamakov, I.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luukkala, M.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G. C. M.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), p. 356.
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Northway, B. W.

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Raatikainen, P.

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sherr, D.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).

Ten Eyck, G. A.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toth, F. N.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), p. 356.
[CrossRef]

van-der-Lee, M.

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), p. 356.
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Warenghem, M.

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).

Zabaronick, N. A.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, Electron. Lett. 36, 1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 531 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. W. Northway, N. H. Hancock, and T. Cong-Tran, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Cambell, D. Sherr, T. G. D’Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 25, 14 1007 (2000).

Sensors Actuators A (2)

A. Wang, M. F. Gunber, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Sensors Actuators A 35, 161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Raatikainen, I. Kassamakov, R. Kakankov, and M. Luukkala, Sensors Actuators A 35, 93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. N. Toth, G. C. M. Meijer, and M. van-der-Lee, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), p. 356.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of the wavelength shift versus the RI of the material surrounding the LPG, for the attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the sixth-order cladding mode. The curve through the data points is a guide for the eye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the LPG, showing the response of the attenuation band corresponding to coupling to the sixth-order cladding mode under the following conditions: +, surrounded by air; , with 60% of the LPG surrounded with an oil of RI 1.456; , total immersion of the LPG in an oil of RI 1.456. Attenuation band A was observed when the LPG was surrounded by air, and attenuation band B was observed when the LPG was totally immersed in oil with a RI of 1.456.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in the normalized transmission spectrum of the LPG for three different liquid levels: +, in air; , 60% of the LPG surrounded by oil with a RI of 1.456; , total immersion of the LPG in oil with a RI of 1.456. The normalization was performed by subtraction of a reference spectrum recorded with the LPG surrounded by air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the change in transmission measured at the two coupling wavelengths as a function of the percentage of the LPG immersed in oil with a RI of 1.456. , asmplitude of the trough; , amplitude of the peak. The dashed curves are theoretical plots calculated from expressions  (3) and (4).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the difference in the two curves shown in Fig.  4, ΔT, as a function of the percentage of the LPG immersed in oil.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λi=neffλi-ncladiλiΛ,
TL=sin2κL,
TAl,Lsin2π2lL,
TBl,Lsin2π2L-lL.

Metrics