Abstract

We have studied the coupling of a classic ridge waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) waveguide, using finite-difference time-domain calculations. The ridge waveguide exhibits only a weak refractive-index confinement of light, as it is commonly used in buried-heterostructure or ridge-waveguide lasers. The light is coupled to a PC waveguide that consists of one missing row along the ΓK direction in a triangular lattice of air cylinders in AlGaAs. We compare various designs for PC tapers with that of a classic taper and for butt coupling. The calculation yields high coupling efficiency that exceeds 80% for a 2.5μm-long PC taper. In addition, the dependence of the efficiency on the PC air-fill factor and on alignment tolerances is analyzed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Lett. 25, 1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 25, 755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, J. Opt. A 1, L10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, Nature 383, 699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J.-P. Berenger, J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

Adibi, A.

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J.-P.

J.-P. Berenger, J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, Nature 383, 699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Centeno, E.

E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, J. Opt. A 1, L10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Cox, S. J.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, Nature 383, 699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felbacq, D.

E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, J. Opt. A 1, L10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fullowan, R.

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guizal, B.

E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, J. Opt. A 1, L10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, M.

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Lett. 25, 1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Johnson, S. G.

Kemhadjian, H.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, Nature 383, 699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 25, 755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, Y.

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takemura, H.

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Xu, Y.

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 25, 755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 25, 755 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

Zoorob, M. E.

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Adibi, R. K. Lee, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 36, 1376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

J. Comput. Phys.

J.-P. Berenger, J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

E. Centeno, B. Guizal, and D. Felbacq, J. Opt. A 1, L10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. B

D. M. Tennant, R. Fullowan, H. Takemura, M. Isobe, and Y. Nakagawa, J. Vac. Sci. B 18, 3089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L595 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, G. J. Parker, M. C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, S. J. Cox, and H. Kemhadjian, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, Nature 383, 699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Contour plot of the electric field intensity distribution of a ridge-waveguide mode with weak lateral confinement. The refractive index of the cladding is 3.13 and of the core is 3.52; the wavelength is 1 μm. (b) Computational domain of the FDTD simulation: the ridge waveguide mode enters the PC taper and changes its profile; some light is diffracted from the first PC holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of transmission spectra for various PC taper geometries with step size (1), (2), and (3) lattice constants.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of PC taper (2) compared with butt-coupled PC waveguide (1) and conventional taper (3) with hard confinement.

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