Abstract

Stable spatial laser patterns were observed in a high-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity containing up to 2   atm of CO2 and O2. The gases displayed the same sequence of patterns that obey a scaling law of the form Pβp2, where P is the power stored in the cavity, p is the pressure of the gas, and β is a material-dependent parameter.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Hoffman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 253 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Bentley, R. W. Boyd, W. E. Butler, and A. C. Melissinos, Opt. Lett. 25, 1192 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Absorption data for N2, O2, and CO2 is given in Ref.  9; by the same technique, we found Ar and He to have less absorption than N2, while absorption for N2O was of the same order as CO2.
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Heebner, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. (personal communication).
  17. Y. Suematsu and K.-I. Iga, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  18. J. Boyce and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3953 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

J. Boyce and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3953 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. R. W. McKellar, N. H. Rich, and H. L. Welsh, Can. J. Phys. 50, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adachihara, H.

Bentley, S. J.

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Betin, A. A.

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bolda, E. L.

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyce, J.

J. Boyce and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3953 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Bradley, D. J.

J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Butler, W. E.

Byer, R. L.

A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boyce and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3953 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. G.

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J.

J. Heebner, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. (personal communication).

Hellwarth, R. W.

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.-I.

Y. Suematsu and K.-I. Iga, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Indik, R.

Jacob, D.

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, F. B.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, A.

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Le Naour, R.

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leite, R. C. C.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. S.

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lizarraga, C.

Lu, W.

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maitre, A.

M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G.

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McKellar, A. R. W.

A. R. W. McKellar, N. H. Rich, and H. L. Welsh, Can. J. Phys. 50, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, D. W.

Melissinos, A. C.

Mitropol’sky, O. V.

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Moore, R. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Newell, A. C.

Nilsson, A. C.

A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Northcutt, R.

Porto, S. P. S.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rich, N. H.

A. R. W. McKellar, N. H. Rich, and H. L. Welsh, Can. J. Phys. 50, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ripley, P.

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rusov, N. Y.

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Slekys, G.

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Staliunas, K.

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu and K.-I. Iga, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Taranenko, V. B.

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tochio, J. O.

J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaupel, M.

M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, C. O.

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, H. L.

A. R. W. McKellar, N. H. Rich, and H. L. Welsh, Can. J. Phys. 50, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, E. A.

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zurek, W. H.

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. O. Weiss, M. Vaupel, K. Staliunas, G. Slekys, and V. B. Taranenko, Appl. Phys. B 68, 151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. B. Kowalsky, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Jacob, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, and R. Le Naour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3546 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Martin and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

A. R. W. McKellar, N. H. Rich, and H. L. Welsh, Can. J. Phys. 50, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. C. Nilsson, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Bespalov, A. A. Betin, E. A. Zhukov, O. V. Mitropol’sky, and N. Y. Rusov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. S. Porto, and J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. O. Tochio, W. Sibbett, and D. J. Bradley, Opt. Commun. 37, 67 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Boyce and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3953 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and W. H. Zurek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vaupel, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. G. Harrison, W. Lu, D. S. Lim, D. Yu, and P. Ripley, Proc. SPIE 2039, 91 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Absorption data for N2, O2, and CO2 is given in Ref.  9; by the same technique, we found Ar and He to have less absorption than N2, while absorption for N2O was of the same order as CO2.

J. Heebner, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. (personal communication).

Y. Suematsu and K.-I. Iga, Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup. The optical paths are shown as solid lines, and the electrical paths are dotted lines. FC, feedback controls; FG, 40-MHz function generator; M1, M2, mirrors; L1–L3, lenses; QWP, quarter-wave plate. See text for other definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of three of the observed patterns. Note that the central TEM00 mode is saturated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parameter X defined in Eq.  (1) for the appearance of patterns (a)–(d). Solid curve, increasing power; dashed curve, decreasing power. The typical error in threshold values of X is 3%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal and Optical Properties of CO2 and O2

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X=P/P0βp/p02,
Tρ-T0=-Λρ2,Λ=0.7αP2πκ,
n2ρ-n20=2n0n-1TΛρ2n20gr2,
f=-32 mP/500 Wp/1 atm2.
ν=c2Ln+1+m+l1π2LR1/2,

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