Abstract

We report the observation of whispering-gallery-mode lasers based on Er3+-doped ZBLAN microspheres coupled with half-tapered and tapered optical fibers. A multimode lasing effect is observed at 1.56 μm when the taper diameters are properly adjusted so that their fundamental propagation constants match those of the resonant modes of interest. Overlap between the pump and the laser geometrical modes is optimized by pumping at 1.48 μm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).
  2. Z. V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Mater. 11, 153 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 20, 813 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Lett. 22, 1129 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Cai and K. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 25, 260 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, D. R. Lim, H. A. Haus, L. C. Kimerling, and S. T. Chu, Opt. Lett. 25, 73 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, Opt. Lett. 25, 1430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. F. Digonnet, ed., Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Vol. 37 of Optical Engineering (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  15. S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 16, 1138 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Hill and R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.
  18. P. Féron, F. Lissillour, and G. M. Stéphan, presented at the Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ETc 2000), Timisoara, Romania, November 23–24, 2000.

2000 (4)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Ait-Ameur, K.

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

S. Hill and R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

Birks, T. A.

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cai, M.

Campillo, A. J.

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Chang, R. K.

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Cheung, G.

Chu, S. T.

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 20, 813 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupriez, P.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Féron, P.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Féron, F. Lissillour, and G. M. Stéphan, presented at the Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ETc 2000), Timisoara, Romania, November 23–24, 2000.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 20, 813 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroche, S.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hill, S.

S. Hill and R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Kimerling, L. C.

Knight, J. C.

Laine, J. P.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Lett. 20, 813 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, Z. V.

Z. V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Mater. 11, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leventhal, D.

Lim, D. R.

Lissillour, F.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Féron, F. Lissillour, and G. M. Stéphan, presented at the Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ETc 2000), Timisoara, Romania, November 23–24, 2000.

Little, B. E.

Maleki, L.

Miura, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Poulain, M.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Sandoghdar, V. S.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Sercel, P. C.

Stéphan, G.

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stéphan, G. M.

P. Féron, F. Lissillour, and G. M. Stéphan, presented at the Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ETc 2000), Timisoara, Romania, November 23–24, 2000.

Tanaka, K.

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

Yao, X. S.

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Lissillour, P. Féron, N. Dubreuil, P. Dupriez, M. Poulain, and G. Stéphan, Electron. Lett. 36, 1382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 1854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Z. V. Lefèvre-Seguin, Opt. Mater. 11, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. S. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Lissillour, K. Ait-Ameur, N. Dubreuil, and G. Stéphan, Proc. SPIE 3416, 150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Hill and R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

P. Féron, F. Lissillour, and G. M. Stéphan, presented at the Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ETc 2000), Timisoara, Romania, November 23–24, 2000.

M. J. F. Digonnet, ed., Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Vol. 37 of Optical Engineering (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Propagation constant βf (curves) of the fundamental mode in a tapered silica fiber (or half-taper) as a function of radius r and βs (squares and circles) of WGMs with n=1 for ZBLAN spheres of different radii.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setups for coupling of an Er-ZBLAN microspherical laser at 1.56 μm with (a) half-tapered and (b) tapered fiber. In each setup the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) was alternatively connected to +m>0 or -m<0 channels. LDs, laser diodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence and (b) laser spectra from a sphere of 53μm diameter. The solid and dashed lines with double arrows show the free spectral range for the same n family. The same periodicity can be found along the horizontal dotted lines with double arrows, which correspond to four other n families. Peaks 1, 6, and 10 correspond to TE laser modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric spectrum after self-heterodyne detection. The linewidth, Γ (FWHM), is 46  kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser spectrum of the negative m modes of a 95μm-diameter sphere excited by a tapered fiber.

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