Abstract

The photorefractive response time of LiNbO3 crystal is of the order of minutes, and such a long response time limits the crystal’s practical applications. We report the photorefractive properties of nominally pure near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal that is strongly reduced in vacuum. A short photorefractive response time of the order of 100  ms is measured at a wavelength of 514.5  nm, with incident light intensity of 1.6 W/cm2, and possible corresponding mechanisms are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence of a subsecond photorefractive response in pure LiNbO3 crystals. The diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating written in this reduced crystal is low but can be enhanced by an externally applied electric field.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3685 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

Corradi, G.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielyan, V. T.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gatier, B.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grachev, V. G.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. L.

Hsieh, T. C.

Hsu, K. Y.

Hu, L.

Jermann, F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klancnik, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Klaner, S.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lin, S.

Lin, S. H.

Malovichko, G. I.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Medrano, C.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Micheron, F.

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3685 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peltier, M.

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3685 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proshko, V. Y.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

Schlarb, U.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Thiemann, O.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

Yeh, P.

Yeh, T.

Yurchenko, L. P.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gatier, F. Jermann, S. Klaner, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (2)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 18, 27 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3685 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wöhlecke, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, L. P. Yurchenko, V. Y. Proshko, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. T. Gabrielyan, Phys. Status Solidi 133, K29 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Application I and II, Vols. 61 and 62 of Appl. Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of a, as-grown congruent LiNbO3; b, as-grown near-stoichiometric LiNbO3, and c, near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 reduced in vacuum at 950°C for 5  h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup. λ/2, half-wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical temporal behavior of grating formation and dark decay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of diffraction efficiency η during writing of a holographic grating; a, sample is placed in an adiabatic holder; b, sample is placed in a holder made from copper.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-intensity dependence of a, the maximum value and b, the stationary value of diffraction efficiency during recording grating. The curves are measured with a sample placed in a holder made from an adiabatic material.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiency versus an externally applied electric field. The light-intensity ratio of the writing beams is roughly unity. The squares are the measured points, and the solid curve is a guide for the eye.

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