Abstract

We report on oscillating complex noise spectra obtained when a diode-laser beam passes through a resonant dense Doppler-broadened cesium-vapor cell. Atomic coherence converts the laser phase noise into amplitude noise in the transmitted beam. We have found that the level of amplitude noise is orders of magnitude above the intrinsic laser noise. As a function of laser detuning, this noise extends over several inhomogeneous widths, depending on the spectral frequency. Numerical calculations based on a simple theory remarkably mimic the details of the experimental noise spectra.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, and R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Walser and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 49, 5067 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Camparo and W. F. Buell, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 253.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Camparo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 1177 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.
  13. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap.  8.
  14. A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Walser and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 49, 5067 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. H.

A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bahoura, M.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Buell, W. F.

J. C. Camparo and W. F. Buell, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

Camparo, J. C.

J. C. Camparo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo and W. F. Buell, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, and R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, C. E.

Ferguson, A. I.

A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghezali, S.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Haslwanter, Th.

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

Hui, A. K.

A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M. D.

A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, Ph.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D. H.

Mitsui, T.

T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oritz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch, H.

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

Rosenbluth, M.

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A.

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, V. V.

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

Velichansky, V. L.

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

Walser, R.

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Walser and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 49, 5067 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, and R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, A. P.

A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson-Gordon, A. D.

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wray, A. A.

A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yabuzki, T.

T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap.  8.

Zibrov, A. S.

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

Zoller, P.

R. Walser and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 49, 5067 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Oritz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

J. C. Camparo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

A. K. Hui, B. H. Armstrong, and A. A. Wray, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 509 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. P. Willis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Kane, Opt. Commun. 122, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. D. Levenson, and R. Walser, Opt. Commun. 146, 158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

Th. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. 38, 5652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Walser and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 49, 5067 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Walser, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4303 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Yabuzki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1346 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Bahoura, Ph. Laurent, N. Dimarcq, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, and A. Clairon, in Proceedings of the Tenth European Frequency and Time Forum (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1996), p. 245.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Camparo and W. F. Buell, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

H. G. Robinson, V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics, AIP Conf. Proc. 323 (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1994), p. 1A-7.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap.  8.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted laser intensity noise versus detuning for an optically thin Cs vapor (upper trace) and a saturated-absorption frequency calibration signal (lower trace). The spectrum analyzer is set to 300  MHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: O.I, optical isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SF, spatial filtering; BS, beam splitter; Ds, detectors; As, amplifiers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise power spectrum versus detuning and reference absorption spectrum (lower traces). The spectrum analyzer’s frequency is (A) 1  GHz, (B) 2  GHz, and (C) 3  GHz for the noise spectrum.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Itt=E021+MωmFωmsinωmt+ψ,
Fωm=expα0-α1L+expα0-α-1L-2exp2α0-α1-α-1L/2×cos2β0-β1-β-1L,
k=k01+χω+jχω1/2=βω-jαω/2.
χωm=-χ02 ΔνDln2πi=lineBiImWZi,χωm=χ02 ΔνDln2π11+Si=lineBiReWZi,

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